Sunday, April 21, 2013

Identity Blogger

Identity BloggerA. Blogger and historical understanding Blogger

Blogger is one of the first companies to introduce the blog. Blogger was originally owned by Pyra Labs who then switched ownership by Google Company. Official Blogger is owned by Google in 2002. Blogger since the transfer of ownership of the company are handled by Google, Blogger changed 100% in a display as well as the applications contained therein. Bloggers existence can not be separated from the world of blogs and blogging, because we already know from the description above that the first to introduce the world of blogs are Blogger.

B. Advantages and Disadvantages of Blogger

Blogger also known as Blogspot domain which is created by Google. In addition to introducing the world's first blog, blogger definitely has its advantages and disadvantages. The advantages and disadvantages Blogger namely:
Excess Blogger

1. The process is easy and practical list
2. If you have a Gmail account, then you are automatically enrolled in
3. Supports javascript and flash (such as widgets and adsense)
4. Can be used in Indonesian
5. CSS and HTML files can be edited and modified as you like
6. Could have a lot of blogs with one account.
7. Admin navigation is simple and easy.
8. Can be used to scoop sustenance (support with program affilasi).
9. Can mutually template (theme) as they pleased from the downloaded template.
10. Upload images on automatically go straight into your picasa account.
11. Can make a page (the page)
12. Can post via E-mail and MMS in Hp
13. Can upload pictures and videos
14. Can create community
15. There is a list of blogs that follow

Disadvantages blogger

1. Very simple dash display
2. Default template is very little
3. There is no default reply button on the comments (so should edit CSS or HTML)
4. No tags (keywords) (So that should add it in HTML or CSS)
5. Opened in Hp sometimes difficult

Identity Templates Blog

Identity Templates Blog
A. Understanding Templates Blog

Website template is a blog or shape designs blog page or website and all its components such as images, stylesheets, Navigation, and other widgets. Blog template is also characterized by the presence of static files and dynamic form of a program or application that runs as a web application. Basically the blog template has been designed and adapted to display a standard menu and bawaanya. Like the blogger template for example, the blogger has been providing free design templates that you can choose and decide according to your taste.

Form template is very diverse and wide range of types, depending on the chosen theme. Blog template modifications are also provided through specific codes such as html, css, and so forth. For those of you who are proficient in blog template code, then you can design and mendesaignnya own. However, not many bloggers are able to make your own blog template. Do not acute, because many bloggers have or websites that offer free blog templates, other than that we can also choose the template which is in accordance with our blogs and in accordance with the theme of the blog you have.

B. Selecting Blog Template interesting

Look for templates that you find interesting as well as for visitors. many websites that provide examples of templates that pretty either paid or free. You can get the template that is right for you already. Choose a blog template that suits your terms and it is definitely a blog template that fits your taste.

C. Choosing a light blog template

Besides beautify your blog, template also has significant benefits and functions, one of which is loading the blog. Sometimes there are heavy blogs and one reason is the selection of the wrong template. To choose your blog template is lightweight so that when people open your blog is not tired or bored for long and heavy loading.

In addition, the setting of blog templates also need to consider, because otherwise it would Visitor lazy to visit your website if the loading is too long. Then avoid things like this. Many factors that make it a heavy web are:
  • Too many big size image
  • Too many scripts or variations attached
  • Size of the template
  • Factors hosting server is too busy or is slow

Identity HTML

Identity HTMLA. Understanding HTML

HTML derived from English to Abbreviations Hyper Text Markup Language. Hyper text means a word or phrase to indicate the relationship of a text document with other manuscripts. If you click on a word or phrase to follow a link, the web browser will move the display to the other parts of the manuscript or document you want.

HTML can also be interpreted as a collection of symbols or tags are written in a file intended for display on a web browser page. The tags will tell the browser how to display a web page or blog with the user complete.

In terms of HTML is a markup form indicating that the HTML file contains a specific instruction that can provide a format in which the document will be displayed on the World Wide Web (WWW). Although HTML itself is not a programming language, HTML is a collection of some of the instructions that can be used to vary the format a manuscript or document.

Information from wikipedia, HTML or Hyper Text Markup Language is a markup language used to create a web page or site, featuring a variety of information on the Internet and a web crawler written formating simple hypertext file into ASCII format in order to produce a display that terintegerasi form. It is understood that a file created in a word processing software and stored into normal ASCII format so that a home page with HTML commands.

HTML was originally a widely used language in the world of publishing and printing called SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language), HTML is also a widely used standard for displaying web pages or sites.

B. Basic or Home Basic HTML

Basic HTML

- Hypertext
- Tags and elements
- Text formatting
- Lists, hyperlinks, images
- Table, frames
- Cascanding style sheets

Basic HTML contents

- <html>
- <head>
- <title>
- </head>
- <body>
- </body>
- </html>

Identity DataBase

Identity DataBaseA. Understanding Database

Database is a collection of information stored in the computer systematically. The database can also be interpreted as a representation of a collection of interconnected facts stored together, to meet a variety of needs. In addition it is also a form collection databases of related information on a particular subject for a particular purpose anyway.

In another sense Database is a complete array of operational data records of an organization or company, which is organized and stored in an integrated way by using certain methods so as to meet the optimal information needed olehpara users.

B. Historical Occurrences Database

The term word "database" originated from computer science. Database widespread sense then, the database is also included in the portion outside the field of electronics and computer database form of the article. Note that similar to the actual database already existed before the industrial revolution in the form of a large book, and the collection of data related to the business.

C. Basic Concepts Database

Basic concept of a database is a collection of records, or pieces of knowledge. A database has a structured description of the types of facts stored in it and an explanation is called schema. Many ways to organize the scheme, or to model the structure of the database, known as the database model or data model.

Commonly used model of the current database is the relational model, which according to the terms represent all the information in the form of related tables, with each table consists of rows and columns (using the terminology of mathematics). In this model, the relationship between tables is represented by using the same values ​​between tables.

D. The device used for Creating Database

Databases can be created and processed using a computer program, which is commonly referred to as software (the software). Software is used to manage and call the query (query) database called Database Management System (DBMS) is a Database Management System.

Data Base Management System is comprised of two components, namely Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and Overview of Database Management System (ODBMS). Includes RDBMS Interface Drivers, SQL Engine, Transaction Engine, Relational Engine, and Storage Engine. Drivers ODBMS while covering Language, Query Engine, Transaction Engine, and Storage Engine.

E. Type Database

There are 12 types of databases, such as Operational database, Analyticaldatabase, data warehouses, Distributed databases, End-user database, External data base, Hypermedia databases on the web, Navigational databases, In-Memory Data bases, Document-oriented databases, Real- time databases, and RelationalDatabase.

Identity MySQL

Identity MySQLA. understanding MySQL

MySQL is a database software in a server or Database Smart. This database has been popular nowadays. By using this database, data is more secure and efficient. This database is also widely used in web database so that the data is integrated between desktop database with a web database.

In addition it can also be interpreted as the MySQL software SQL database management system (database management system) or DBMS is multithreaded, multi-user, with about 6 million installations worldwide. MySQL different from projects like Apache, which software is developed by the general community, and the copyright to the source code are owned by their respective authors, whereas MySQL is owned and sponsored by a Swedish commercial company MySQL AB, which holds the copyright on all iasm source code. Both the Swedish and the Finnish people who founded MySQL AB is: David Axmark, Allan Larsson and Michael "Monty" Widenius

B. excess MySQL

As one of the database server with the modern concept of the current database, MySQL has many privileges, among privilege in MySQL is:

1). Portability

MySQL database with stable function without constraints, significant effect on a variety of operating systems such as Windows, Linux, FreeBSD, Mac OS X Server, Solaris, Amiga, HP-Unix.

2). Open Source

MySQL is an open source database (free), under the GPL license so that it can obtain and use it freely without paying.

3). Multiuser

MySQL is a database that can be used to handle multiple users at the same time without experiencing any problems. And enables a MySQL server database can be accessed at the same client as well.

4). Performace Tuning

MySQL has a pretty good speed in dealing with simple queries, and can process more SQL per unit time.

5). Column Type

MySQL databases are supported with highly complex data types, such as signed / unsigned integer, float, double, char, varchar, text, blob, data, time, datetime, timestamp, year, set and enum.

6). Command and Functions

MySQL server has full service and functionality that support the SELECT and WHERE in the query.

7). Security

Security systems at MySQL has several layers of security such as Subnet levels, hostname, and permits the user access to the detailed licensing system and encrypted passwords.

8) Scalability and Limits

MySQL database has the ability to handle a large enough scale, with a record number of more than 50 million and 60 thousand tables and 5 billion rows. Moreover, it can accommodate up to 32 index index on each table.

9). Connectivity

The ability to connect to the MySQL client using TCP / IP, Unix sockets (Unix), or Named Pipes (NT).

10). Localization

The ability to detect errors (error code) on the client uses more than twenty languages.

11). Interface

MySQL has an interface to a variety of applications and programming languages ​​use function API (Application Programming Interface).

12). Clients and Tools

MySQL database has various tools that can be used for database administration.

13). Table Structure

MySQL has a pretty good table structure and flexible enough, for example when dealing with alter table.        

C. Features of MySQL
  • MySQL starting at 3:22 series adopted a lot of people and increased its population, then at 3:23 and 4.0 series has been a lot of improvement in terms of technology. Is not apart from the demands of users who increasingly rely on MySQL, but need the features more.
  • 3:23 series. MySQL 3:23 in series adds three new table types: MyISAM first, that until now the default table type, secondly BerkeleyDB, the first to add transaction capabilities in MySQL, and InnoDB third, potential new prima donna.
  • Series 4.x. In the new series runs until 4.0 alpha stage, the MySQL developers promised to make MySQL a higher degree. Features that had always requested will be granted, as subselek (in 4.1), union (4.0), foreign key constraint (4.0 or 4.1 though InnoDB 3.23.x already provide this), stored procedures (4.1), view (4.2) , cursor (4.1 or 4.2), trigger (4.1). MySQL AB remain dedicated to develop and improve MySQL, and MySQL to maintain a popular open source database.

    Be yourself

    Being yourself is not a disgrace
    Being yourself is not a disgrace, but it is difficult to do a lot of people. see, .. partly the pelastik surgery to beautify themselves, make sharp nose, leveling gear, even to operate partly body.

    In the name of beauty and good looks, many people are willing to spend money it does not matter whether their actions as to exceed the limits.

    There also are afraid not sell, can not match because of an ugly face, body fat, body is not slim and sexy etc.. but these reasons can not serve as the steering wheel to get the desire.

    You can see together, there is an affinity partner where fat men but women slim and sexy, there is also a female partner but men are handsome and fat-bodied ideal, even women who are disabled but the male partner is perfect.

    The above facts indicate that the match is not determined by the beauty, beauty, body shape, and so on. you should know mate had been arranged by God, as we seek and pray, surely God will not remain silent to answer our requests.

    Therefore, being yourself is the best thing and not something to be ashamed of. do not be afraid if you are considered ugly, black, fat, disabled and so on, for any shape of your body when the body is merely a formality created by God. because however beautiful your face, handsome face, sexy body, it will all be destroyed and devastated.

    Rest assured, when we believe that what lies within us is the best, then that is a gorgeous shape and real attitudes and negative impression can beat people who always make fun of us. Not Ashamed of yourself!

    Identity Template

    Identity Template
    A. Definition Template

    Templates can generally be interpreted as a dress or outfit from a blog or website. While significant in terms of a design template blog page or website with all its associated components, such as images, widgets, and other search menu. In the world of bloggers, the template is not foreign to be heard, even almost all bloggers know and understand about the template.

    B. Types of Templates

    Currently only the template is divided into two models Courant. In the review of the usefulness and interest of people towards this type of template. The type of template that is often used by many people is that berbasic template blogger and wordpress.

    Furthermore, Joomla is also a new breakthrough in the design of a template, but because the arrangements are a little complicated than Blogger and wordpress template models for a website, then Joomla is not so well known, and very few people are using the template of joomla.

    C. Benefits and Objectives Template

    Likened to us as human beings, then we need an outfit. Clothing memperlihat appearance standards which we show to people. Like a house, then the house knick knacks need to embellish and support the house itself.

    From the illustration above can be explained that the aim of facilitating template necessities required in creating a blog, such as widgets, images, navigation, posting and so forth. Benefits of blogs in addition to supporting and facilitating components in a blog or website, the template is also useful for blogs that can beautify and make us comfortable when blog visitors on our blog.

    Identity Browser

    Identity Browser
    A. Understanding Browser

    Browser derived from the English language meaning explorer or browser. Browser means a software that serves display and interact with information and data files from the server. It can be concluded that the browser is the software using software that is connected through the Internet connection. The browser can also be defined as a program or application used to browse the internet in order to find a variety of information from the web or blog.

    B. Browser History

    In the context of the history of the browser appeared on December 25, 1990. Browser created by TIm Skellig-Lee who came dar English. Some Internet browser developed in 1992, among which are libwww, line-mode, ViolaWWW, Midas and Samba.

    C. Function Browser

    Browser serves as a bridge between the Internet with other Internet users. without a browser, then we will not be able to access the data we are looking for information.

    D. Browser Types

    Browser is very diverse. However, not all browsers are known and desirable people. As for some browsers known and attracted many people in search of information is:

       1. Firefox

    Firefox has now become the number one browser that many people use. This is due to the advantages of the firefox browser as compared to other browsers. The benefits of firefox as the browser is:

    - Pop-up Blocker
    - (Extension) to add extra functionality
    - Customization letters (font) and color
    - Compatibility with a wide range of technologies (Assistive Technologies)
    - Shortcuts (Shortcut)

    2. Internet Explorer (IE)

    . Internet Explorer is the browser first appeared. Although the browser is less attractive to people today, it is still Internet Explorer browser should be considered. features provided:

    - Accelerator
    - Search suggestions
    - Visual suggestions
    - Better Find On Page
    - Increased performance
    - Smarter Address Bar

    3. Opera

    Opera has its own advantages when compared to other browsers, including Firefox's browser. opera browser also provides a browser for mobile devices, also called operamini and operamobile. The opera several advantages:

    - Explore more quickly
    - Navigate more easily
    - Features a sophisticated
    - Customization
    - Security
    - Support the development of

    4. Chrome

    - Minimal design with sophisticated technology
    - One box for everything (alternative search in the address box)
    - Box address also serves as a search engine
    - Thumbnails of your top sites
    - Crash Control, Incognito Mode, Safe Browsing
    - Instant Bookmarks, Importing Settings, Simpler Downloads

    5. Safari

    Safari browser is a browser made by Apple inc. initially only used for the mac operating system OS. As for the features of Safari 5 is:

    - Supports HTML5 + CSS3 + 30% faster Speed
    - Nitro Engine (Managing Web Application much faster)
    - Cover Flow (Display bookmarks and history is more convenient)
    - Smart Address Field, Smart Search Field

    E. Identify Browser

    The browser comes with a variety of buttons that can assist and facilitate users. forward and back buttons usually found on the top left of the screen. if you click on the button, then you will be brought before page web. while the reload or refresh button serves to reload the web page. While on the Home button function to bring you to a site that you selected earlier. while the favorites or bookmarks button lets you save the website address for easy access at other times.

    Saturday, April 20, 2013

    Integration of Religion and Public Education

    1. Understanding Integration Studies

    Integration of science and religion is essentially a common effort to combine or mix together ontology, epistemology and axiology sciences in both fields tersebut.Itegrasi both the sciences is a necessity not only for the good of Muslims alone, but to the civilization of mankind seluruhnya.Karena with integration , science will clear him, which has a clear spirit to always serve human values ​​and virtues of the universe, rather than a tool of dehumanization, exploitation, and destruction earth. value can not be achieved if there is still a dichotomy of science as occurs at this time.

    Integration of science is not only the demands of the times, but has a strong normative legitimacy of Al-Quran and Hadith and historical behavior of the scholars of Islam who has proven his figure as an integrative scientist who contributed tremendous for the progress of human civilization. Currently, the form of the integration of science was formulated either by the government itself and the integration model of intellectual muslim.Tawaran trying practiced by many universities still leaves islam and external debate their inter sendiri.Karenanya, they practiced integration model is not yet final and requires continuous evaluation of all components of Indonesian education community. Integration of knowledge is imperative for Muslims, therefore, is not only the responsibility of government alone and obligations of the Islamic University, but also among public universities and all Muslims who want Islamic progress and civilization more advanced than humanist.

    2. Background Integration Studies

    The idea of ​​integrating science was first developed by Mr. Muhammad Natsir. He saw that they were only studying religion and science are only studying the world, equally distant from religion. Because, in the Al Quran surah al-Qasas verse 77 Allah commands us to live "balanced", but the pursuit of the afterlife world should never forget. Both types of education should not be separated (dichotomy), in a mutually exclusive sense. But they complement each other in order to obtain the glory of the people in the next world, as has been achieved by the earlier Muslims. Thoughts on education should be integral, not separate science and science world religions, theology and general science. Both are a single unit. Separating and contrasting one of them will make people can not prevail, especially in the arena of the struggle of this life. To realize the vision and mission of education, Natsir establish educational institutions in the Union of Islamic movements in Bandung, named "Islamic Education" (Pendis) in 1927. This is the first formal basic education in the environment of a large family of Islamic Unity. Islamic education (Pendis) stems from the ideals and idealism Natsir regarding educational Islam and Muslims after the fact that occur in the field at that time. In 1981, after a global education conference in Mecca in 1977, Ismail Raji al-Faruqi sparked the idea of ​​Islamization of Knowledge by means of integration of science. The idea of ​​integration of science Al-Faruqi is defined as a business that is giving a new definition, organize data, think of another way of thinking and linking data, evaluate conclusions, projecting back goals-and do it in such a way that all the discipline- disciplinary insights that enrich beneficial to Islam and Islamic ideals. In carrying out the process of Islamization of knowledge is Al-Faruqi formulate a work plan with five objectives, namely:

    a. Mastery of modern disciplines.
    b. Mastery of Islamic heritage treasures.
    c. Relevance of Islam to build their modern disciplines.
    d. Integrate the values ​​and heritage of Islamic heritage creatively with modern sciences.
    e. Directing the flow of Islamic thought to the streets to reach the fulfillment of God's plan pattern.

    Meanwhile, to realize these goals, al-Faruqi compiled 12 steps that must be taken first. These steps can be read in detail in his book Islamization of Knowledge. Together with his colleagues, Al-Faruqi founded the International Institute of Islamic Thought (International Institute of Islamic Thought, IIIT) in Virginia, in 1981. Further to the various conferences, seminars, discussions, workshops, journals, books, articles, research, and other businesses, the idea of ​​Islamization of knowledge echoed.

    Effective Communication

    Communication is very important for anyone and anything in the field, including in the field of business eg. The higher one's position, communication is increasingly important to him. So do not be surprised if the leadership of top managers spend 85% of their time communicating with others. Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages, e-mails can be, formal presentations in seminars, talking with friends, etc.. But communication is considered effective only if other people understand your message correctly and respond according to what you want.

    Communicates that effectively helps you to organize the work flow, improve business relationships, improve your professional image and provide other important benefits. Effective communication is central to most aspects of the business because of communication linking the company with all of its stakeholders, which is a team that is influenced by the actions of the company in several ways, which consists of: customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers, neighbors, community and country.


    You can have the greatest idea of ​​the world, but the idea was not beneficial to your company or your career when you can not express it clearly and persuasively. Nasa project manager said: "Knowledge may be power, but communication skills are the key raw material in good relations with clients".

    Effective communication containing 5 things:

    • Practical
    • Factual
    • Solid
    • Clearly
    • Persuasive

    Practical information

    Provide useful information, to help them perform the desired action or to understand the company's new policy.

    Information in the form of facts, not impressions.

    Use facts not impressions. Use sentences that concrete, specific details and information that is clear, convincing, accurate and ethical. Even when an opinion is needed, present convincing evidence to support your conclusion.

    Information should be solid

    Give the main points of the most important information, not all information to the readers. The messages are clear and concise is more effective than the flood of data and information flood.

    State the message clearly

    Write messages that generates a specific response of a specific recipient. Stated clearly what you expect from the recipient or what you do for them.


    Persuade others and offer recommendations. Show your readers you exactly how they would benefit by providing a response to your message. Mention the benefits to the reader is the key to persuading employers, co-workers, customers or clients to agree on a plan of action or purchase a product.

    In Organizational Communication Environment

    In any business organization is an important part of communication. People need information, and communication is through the information conveyed.

    Communication within the organization divided by 2 is:

    • Internal communication, that is when you exchange information with people in your organization
    • external communication, ie when you exchange information with people outside the organization.

    Formal and informal communication.

    Every organization has a formal communication network, in which ideas and information flow along the chain of command (hierarchy level) in the company's organizational structure.

    In all formal internal network, information flows in three directions:

    • The flow downward
    • The flow upward
    • Horizontal Flow

    Flow downward. Communication flows from executives to employees, executives and split decisions provide information that assist employees in doing their job. Flow upward. Communication flows from employees to executives, providing timely reports on problems, trends, opportunities, complaints and performance-thus allowing executives to solve problems and make smart decisions. Horizontal flow. Lateral or diagonal flow of communication between departments to help employees share information and coordinate tasks. Communication like this is very useful for solving complex problems and difficult.

    Informal communication

    Communications made outside the organizational structure. Could happen anywhere, can be in the dining room, on the golf course, either through e-mail, sms, etc.. Executive Bebeberapa very careful to informal networks, but smart managers make this network to deploy and receive informal messages. This informal communication networks tend to be most active when the employee believes that the network is not providing the information they want or need. External communications flowing into and outside the organization through formal lines (official letters, pemgumuman, e-mail, face-to-face meetings, meetings using conference call etc..), Also through informal means, such as mendiskuikan work with friends, social network activity , talking with customers, and so on.

    Although these interactions are formal, such interactions remain very important to the success of the company, so it requires attention and communication skills together with a formal communication. The importance of information exchange can be seen from the development of social networking software such as Spoke Connect, and Web sites such as and, helping all companies utilize all relationships owned by its employees.

    Communication patterns of Business Organization

    How patterns of communication in business organizations? In general, the pattern of communication in a business organization can be categorized into two patterns are patterns of formal communication and informal communication patterns. Grouping is usually based on the direction of the communication that occurs within the business organization (Curtis et al., 1996).

    1. Formal communication patterns

    In a formal communication pattern is usually divided into four forms, namely (a) the communication from top to bottom (top-down commu-nication), (b) communication from bottom to top (bottom-up commu-nication), (c) communication sideways (horizontal communication), (d) cross-channel (diagonal communication).

    a. Communication from Top to Bottom

    In general, preceded by the leadership communication to employees is down or communication from top to bottom. Communication flow starts from superiors to subordinates is generally associated with the authority and responsibility of a person in a business organization (see Exhibit 3.1.)

    Downward communication has five main objectives (Katz, 1994), namely:

    1) Giving directions or instructions the work.
    2) Provide information as to why the work must be done.
    3) Provide information about the procedure and practice of the organization.
    4) Provide feedback on the implementation of the work to the employees.
    5) Presents information about the philosophy of business organization that can help the company to provide an understanding of the organization's goals to be achieved.

    One of the disadvantages of downward communication is the possibility of filtering or censoring important information before submitted to the employee. That is, the information is up to the employee may not complete as the original.

    b. Communication from the Bottom to the Top
    • The employee must report their progress toward completion of tasks; tell what tasks are causing problems for them (if any!); Suggestions for product improvement or repair work procedures, and the feelings of the employees of all things that exist in the company The.
    • The managers need accurate feedback about the messages they have understood whether or how the decisions are acceptable and what problems arise later.
    • One of the disadvantages of upward communication is the possibility that employees may only convey the right information (known as Mr Nice Origin Statement / ABS), while the information is likely to give a negative impression or that may not be liked by the leaders tend to be delivered.

    Relationships Communication Business Organisation

    In general, the communication has two important functions in the organization, namely: (1) communication allows the exchange of information, and (2) communication helps connect people within an organization (Curtis et al., 1996). On that basis it can be concluded that the organization needs to achieve its goal of communication. It is known that the activities within a business organization (company) is vast and varied. Here are some examples of activities within business organizations associated with the exchange of information.

    a. Business Goal Setting (Company)
    Corporate goal setting usually is a process that involves all the company's management team in a discussion on a business meeting. In this process certainly were a lot of exchange of information.

    b. Decision-making and Implementation
    A decision made by a manager is usually based on a variety of information it receives. This means that in making a decision information is exchanged. Furthermore, once a decision is made, this decision needs to be communicated to the parties relating to the content of the decision to be implemented and this means there is more exchange of information.

    c. Performance Appraisal
    Various performance in business (companies) such as employee performance, financial performance, the performance of production, and of course the performance of the company as a whole, needs to be assessed (evaluated) and then used as input to develop various plans in the various units within the company. In the course of assessment (evaluation) is necessary for information. On that basis it can be concluded that the exchange of information necessary for the company to conduct an assessment of the performance range.

    d. Recruitment and Employee Development
    When companies need to add employees or employees who have been there then the company should do the hiring (recruitment) and these activities lead to the exchange of information between the prospective employee and the company. Furthermore, after the employees decided to be accepted in the company then the company usually conduct training for the employee to complete the tasks mandated. The provision of training is known as development (development) and employees in this activity is very much an exchange of information.

    e. Service to the Customer
    In the era of customer-centric marketing, the term customer service (customer service) is something that is inevitable. Activities are included in the 'customer service' really is not just limited to serving complaints from customers, but even more so that the company should identify what the needs and desires of customers, serving the needs and wants of the customer, and still maintain a good relationship (such as by helping solve customer issues related to the use of the company's products) to customers after purchasing the company's products. All activities are heavily laden with information exchange.

    f. Transactions with Suppliers and Lenders
    Company requires raw materials, capital and various other resources in order to conduct activities to achieve company goals. All of these activities require the exchange of information.

    g. Tax payments to the State
    Each company is a taxpayer must meet its obligations to pay in accordance regulations. This activity course requires an exchange of information.

    Operationalization of business

    Understanding and the importance of business operations

    If the business has been established then the further process is executing business operations. With the main objective to further strengthen and develop the business further. With the consolidation of the business development and it is expected that the business has not only survived for a few months or a few years only. But can last for years even when possible from generation to generation.

    Thus business operations can be defined simply as the real action is supposed to do. For business operations is indeed necessary proactive attitude, and innovative. Without these three attitudes are difficult to carry out a successful operation. So if we want to distinguish between business planning and business operations, then the businesses are planning more in the direction of thinking before acting, looking more towards the operational business act or acts.

    Established market strategy
    • In business operations that must be done first is to establish and develop the market of the business.
    • If the business is growing and moving forward, there is a tendency attract other investors to go jump in the business.
    • This led to increasingly sharp competition. Even though the company was set up in no time rival, the time when the business berkernbang good enough so that the competitors would enter the competition will be more intense.
    • If less vigilant will not compete, means causing declining sales.
    If the customer satisfaction that we provide inferior to a given consumer satisfaction competitors, then we will not compete. For that we are not just required to increase customer satisfaction, but can provide added value that is not owned by a competitor. With satisfaction plus, it is expected the company will be able to give the best to the consumer. If not, it will not compete.

    The importance of superior quality with a unique

    To be able to establish and develop marketing, then first of all we have to do is consolidate products / services produced. Confirming the product / service in the sense that improve the quality of products / services produced according to consumer tastes. This should be considered by every company especially for companies whose products / services are produced, consumers are very sensitive to the quality. If consumers are very sensitive to the quality, the quality declined slightly, consumers will complain even scream, the next time the process will leave it as a subscription. For example, for food and beverage products, consumers are so sensitive that needs major attention to quality. This does not mean the products / services that consumers are not so sensitive we can ignore the quality. Quality of products / services should always be considered by every company, especially when consumers are so sensitive to differences in quality.

    Approaching consumer tastes

    To solidify products / services in accordance with consumer tastes, then first of all we must know how our consumer tastes. For that we should be able to draw a better formula than the formula which is owned by our competitors. This requires research and testing activities.

    Once the importance of this issue, so some say if there is a company that is able to create a formula products / services that suit the tastes of consumers, more than half had been in the hands of successful marketing. Moreover, consumers are very sensitive to the refractive quality of products / services. With the right formula means that we have the possibility Iebih superior in quality products / services than competitors. If we had found the right formula, then we have to maintain the formula. Besides maintaining the formula, the formula should also keep leaking to competitors. The discovery of the exact formula is not meant to be complacent.

    Maintain the quality and uniqueness

    The discovery of the exact formula for the product / service must be maintained. To maintain a predetermined formula, it is not easy. In practice often found decreased quality of products / services of a company, so sales to decline. In other words, must be maintained quality of products / services. To be able to maintain the quality of products / services must first be maintained to keep the production process quality.

    Purchase of raw materials that one can also cause decreased production quality. In other words, the quality of production / services decreased so as not in accordance with a predetermined formula. This can occur for several reasons, among others;

    Distribution strategy

    Although we are able to produce goods / services with excellent quality and the quality was not able  it fully guarantees smooth marketing. Need to launch marketing strategy right in the distribution of goods / services. In this case we know the distribution of direct and indirect distribution. Indirect distribution is the distribution to consumers who use goods / services or consumers who buy for further produced.

    In this case the general distribution by forming a separate organization that uses the power-tanaga sales are where they should be educated to be able to engage with prospective buyers. Conversely if the buyers are end-users then in general are so numerous and widespread. In this case can use the distributor or dealer. In this case the dealer should be able to find a bona fide and capable of building a good relationship with the dealer. Which method is used to channel goods / services, of course there is no formula for sure it all depends on the circumstances, although the tendency is so. With the establishment of the right distribution channels are expected to support marketing.

    Start a business activities

    Business should have the right to set ourselves in accordance with, the planned how should the business initiating. We set the right scale business, which we will in.don quite simple and in accordance with capital provided that. Started in the business plan that we should all things, such as a location for business, labor, quality products / services that we produce, how to market and so on.

    Courage plunge business.

    Obstacles are first in business if pioneering pioneering materialized business but not in do not - do not alone. Pioneering if not too long manifest in courage to plunge business then have upgraded. To support the pioneering business shall immediately started, do not delay. Although it was just the first stone placement. If we want to initiating chicken farm business but not too soon realized, the forced on ourselves to make some chicken coop tail and some chicken. This is encouraging more business development scale.

    Marketing main priority

    Business should have been realized immediately try to mem-how to create a marketing plan products / services resulting or merchantability. Lni scale main priority needs to be. Cause marketing fail if then such business gagallah pioneer. This is all needed to be more of concentration.

    Other support for marketing

    If marketing start visible results, watch the other things especially that may support marketing. Thus will be expected with growing marketing and steady. Establishes and means to develop marketing support to all parties.

    Turning point

    Do not forget we have to make a calculation of production / sales, where to achieve its break-even point. This is important because before reaching break-even point, always in no event will the company loss. Break-even point is the cause of level sales / production company where no profit and no loss.

    Turning point reached immediately

    Planning to do in order to marketing spur, so the achievements of break-even point can be realized immediately. To know more long break-even point reached, the swell so any company will not be last again. Other words before reaching the break-even point, the company is not safe.

    Acceleration marketing push

    To be able to do with marketing spur ways, such as with increase in sales liveliness, hold sales promotion and other activities to introduce products/services. Break-even point can be accomplished if, then circumstances for any more calm happen again. Break-even point is the cause of production or sales company where no profit and no loss. To spur marketing priority to scale and concentration. .

    Marketing at the safe

    Should spur we do not stop in marketing, even break-even point has been reached. Usually the cause if fewer sales down, back injury occurred. Besides, please note although not contain any longer have yet to process any accumulate time there. Paculah therefore that continues to level marketing safe enough. Understanding the meaning of safe here if less then decrease sales business unit will remain through the break-even point.

    Planning To Do Business

    Definition and Significance

    "Planning" in the sense that simple is often given meaning to expressions like "think before you act or twice before stepping". The role of planning is very important in relation to the achievement of a goal. Without any planning or poor planning time, it's likely these goals are not achieved or achieved but at a very expensive cost.

    Business planning

    In the world of business planning should not be ignored, especially for the achievement of objectives in the business world required enormous sacrifices. Is it capital, energy, thoughts, or other sacrifices. So that the business plan should be done carefully, accurately, and can assure.

    Selection of Business

    In the business plan in the first place to think about is choosing the right business. Because if the choice of the business to be diterjuni wrong it will interfere with the running of the company itself. May even lead to the failure of the company concerned.

    Feasibility study

    Not up to one that will choose the business should then held diterjuni feasibility study. Based research or at least when we look, is considered a business worth less then the business should not diterjuni.

    Business feasibility considerations

    To find out whether such binis worth taking some necessary factor between marketing other factors, the level of competition, raw materials, and the human resource.

    Business feasibility

    If a business is deemed worthy then that means business can be chosen for diterjuni. The business even worth generally, for beginners should business with plus special considerations.

    Special considerations

    Special considerations are such that should be started in business with a simple risk control. Besides again would be better if the close of business or pleasure to hobby has owned and skills. Additional consideration is very important business especially for beginners. Consideration with the possibility of such we can have value plus than competitors. At least we have value equivalent with other competitors. Support this very successful in business.

    Start the simple

    Start planning the simple philosophy is right, even if we allow direct start a business in great magnitude. This is the right side of planning management. Especially when initiating the business is the beginner business.

    Why is simple start

    Starting with simple we can develop in the business but steady gradually. When otherwise would fail to bounce back easier. The good side of capital or of mental side.

    Product to excellence

    Tips choosing a business that close to pleasure to support the hobby and perseverance and handling business in such seriousness. Expected to be created with such products, services better-than competitor competitor, at least equivalent with competitors-existing competitors.

    The General Objective of Education

    The general objective of education is to develop the Indonesian people fully in the sense that education is done while maintaining the unity, diversity, develop individual goals. Every citizen has the right to education evenly with excellence (excellence) and balance (equity) between utilization (acces) with achievement (achievement). This lofty goal will be achieved if carried out educational activities and responsible for ensuring the academic quality of the design, management of the educational process, based on the concept of growth, development, renewal, and sustainability so that education should be managed professionally. Education sector on which so many hopes to be able to produce quality resources, often breathless faced with serious problems due to the development of a continuous and very fast. Educational experience fatigue and helplessness, which is called by Coombs as education crisis. Indonesia was not the only nation that was mengghadapi condition this dilemma.

    English nation is also facing the same problem, namely education, declining academic quality and economically weak low access to higher education. In The Economist magazine issue 8 September 2005, disclosed the results of a survey of Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 2004, of the top 20 world universities, academic slump experienced by the 17 universities in the United States, 2 and 1 college English Japanese universities. The article also reveals unequal access between the 2 countries, only 16 percent of children less fortunate families in the UK to get access to higher education, whereas in the United States more than 45 percent.

    In Indonesia, the level of human development index (HDI) which measures the comparison of life expectancy, literacy, education, and standard of living has not moved up significantly, this ranking does not vary much with the newly independent country of Vietnam (Table 1), while access to education for ages 19-24 years enrolled as a student in Indonesia is also not encouraging at 14 percent. Conditions for continued participation in higher education is still low when compared with Malaysia (38 percent) or Egypt (30 percent).

    Amid the state of education in Indonesia as it is today, University of Muhammadiyah Malang (UMM) which is one of Private Universities (PTS) which are the largest in East Java, are encouraged to not cease to make arrangements so that the education system to be a center of excellence of various things the community needs with an emphasis on Quality, Efficiency and Relevance in an attempt to make the UMM as a real university that relies on excellence and keterdepanan, as the vision, mission, and goals set. The vision and mission of the university reflects the intrinsic quality of the multi-faceted approach and multidimensional.

    Friday, April 19, 2013

    Identity PHP

    Identity PHPA. Understanding PHP

    PHP stands for Hypertext Preprocessor is a scripting language that can be implanted or inserted into the HTML. PHP is widely used to program dynamic websites. PHP can be used to build a CMS. Also PHP is also significant as a scripting language most widely used today. PHP is widely used to program dynamic web sites, although it is possible to use for another use.

    B. History of PHP

    Initially PHP stands for Personal Home Page (a personal website). PHP first time created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1995. When it was still called PHP Form Interpreted (FI), which is realized in the form of a series of scripts that are used to process data from a web form.

    Rasmus then released the source code to the public and named PHP or FI. With the release of the source code being open source, so many programmers who are interested in developing PHP. In November 1997, has diliris PHP / FI 2.0, In this release, the PHP interpreter has been implemented in a C program In this release also included extension modules that enhance the ability of PHP / FI significantly.

    later in 1997, a company called Zend PHP interpreter rewrite a cleaner, better, and faster. Then in June 1998, the company released a new interpreter for PHP and inaugurate the release of the PHP 3.0 and PHP acronym was changed to recurring acronym for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessing. Subsequently in mid-1999, Zend released a new PHP interpreter and release is known as PHP 4.0. PHP 4.0 is a PHP version of the most widely used in the early 21st century. This version is widely used due to its ability to build complex web applications while maintaining a high speed and stability.

    And finally in June of 2004, Zend PHP 5.0 release. In this version, the core of the PHP interpreter underwent major changes. This version also includes an object-oriented programming model to respond to the PHP programming language development in the direction of the object-oriented paradigm. (History of PHP is referenced from

    C. Advantages of PHP from other programming languages
    • Programming language PHP is a scripting language that does not do a compilation in its use.
    • Web server that supports PHP can be found where - where from start apache, IIS, Lighttpd, until Xitami with a relatively simple configuration.
    • In the development easier, because of the many mailing lists and developers who are ready to assist in the development.
    • In understand side, PHP is a scripting language most easily because it has a lot of references.
    • PHP is an open source language that can be used in a variety of machines (Linux, Unix, Macintosh, Windows) and can be run through the console and the runtime can also

    Definition and History of Gymnastics

    Gymnastics is a physical activity that is done either as a sport or as a separate exercise to other sports. Unlike the other sports that generally measure the results of activities in a particular object, referring to the shape of motion exercises are done with a combination of integrated and transformed every part of the body of the components of motor skills such as: strength, speed, balance, flexibility, agility and accuracy . With appropriate coordination and governance motion sequences are aligned to form a series of interesting artistic movement.

    According to G. Menke Frank in the Encyclopedia of Sport, as Bannes and Company, New York, 1960, gymnastics consists of broad movements / lot or whole of the exercises that can build muscle or body shape such as: wrist, back, arms and so forth. Gymnastics or exercises including: elements of a somersault, jump, climb and balance. Moderate Imam Hidayat in his book Lessons Practice Guidance Gymnastics, STO London, in March 1970 stated, "Gymnastics is body workout created deliberately, systematically arranged and made a conscious effort to establish and develop personal goals in harmony".

    Gymnastics itself there are various, such as: ancient gymnastics, gymnastic school, gymnastic equipment, corrective gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics, turnen, artistic gymnastics. In general gymnastics, from year to year improvement and growing. Since the late 19th century began to be contested. Established international gymnastics container, with the name of Federation International de Gymnastique (FIG), which manages among others: Artistic Gymnastics (Artistic Gymnastics) and Rhythmic gymnastics (Modern Rhythmic).

    At the school level or junior matches can be restricted to certain numbers, usually gymnastics floor and jumping horses. National and International level matches for men consists of 6 (six) numbers ie: gymnastics floor, jumping horses, saddle horses, parallel bars, single bars, and bracelets. As for women there are 4 (four) numbers: gymnastics floor, the horses jump, balance beam, and the storied bars.

    Assessment is given by 4 (four) led the referee oelh a head referee. Each participant had to match the 2 (two) types of circuits on each number or device, a series of mandatory (which has been determined in advance) and a series of options or free respectively. One value is the average of the two middle values ​​by removing the highest and lowest values ​​of 4 (four) referee. Gymnast with the highest accumulated value into the first champion in the category of all-round, won the second highest to the second and so on.

    Team champion is determined by the sum of five (5) best value of 6 (six) members of the team and every tool. 6 (six) best participants of all athletes take part in the finals in each athlete and the final value is the average of a series of free / selection and previous mandatory together with a series of value-free / in the final choice. This value determines the winner of each tool sequence.

    The referee gives the value at the same time. The maximum value is: 10,000. The punishments given to the reduction in the value of the wrong execution, poor control, helped others, falling from equipment or overdue. Moreover assessed also the difficulty of movement and aesthetic appearance. Large reduction in value is tithing. Assessment regulations revised every 2 (two) years. All exercises have difficulty factors, namely: A, B and C. tersukar is The series of exercises is usually composed of static attitudes that require a large force connected with rhythmic movements corresponding y agn. While a number of motion require strength berntuk others require mobility or skills.

    According to the origin of the word, gymnastics (gymnastics) comes from the Greek to describe a variety of motion. In ancient Greek the century, gymnastics done to maintain healthy growth and create a harmonious body, and not contested. At the end of the 19th century, the rules in gymnastics began specified and made to be contested. At the beginning of the modern Olympic Games, gymnastics is considered as an art rather than as a demonstration of one of the sport regularly.

    History The discovery of DNA

    Deoxyribonucleic Acid or DNA molecules first discovered by a chemistry expert named Friedrich Miescher German nationality in 1869. Miescher investigated the chemical composition of the cell nucleus. He knows that no cell nucleus consisting of carbohydrates, protein and fat, but rather consists of a substance that has a very high phosphorus of conception. Therefore, the substance found in the cell nucleus, the substance that he called nuclein. This name was later changed to nucleic acid, because acid join them together.

    Subsequent study conducted by Fisher in 1880. From the results of his research found the substances in the pyrimidine and purine nucleic acids. These findings are further developed by Kossel Albreent that produces findings that two pyrimidine cytosine and thymine and the two purine adenine and guanine in the nucleic acid, so that the discovery he earned the Nobel Prize in 1910.

    In the 1920s, with a distinctive purple dye DNA, which was developed by a German chemist, Robert Feulgen, DNA found exclusively located on chromosome. Therefore, DNA is the expected location for the genetic material. In the same year Phoebus Levine of the Rockefeller Institute (Russian-born biochemist) revealed that sugar is deoxyribose DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid hence its name).

    Avery Machlead and Mc Arthy (1944) gave a confirmation of the previous findings that DNA has a direct relationship with the offspring. Further research Chargaff in 1955, through the hydrolysis of DNA prove that the variety of creatures apparently many adenine always roughly equal to the amount of thymine (A = T), as well as cytosine and guanine (S = G). In other words, the rule states that the ratio Ghargaff A / T and S / G is always close to one.

    Subsequent research by molecular biologist James Dewey Watson and Francis HC Crick in 1953. The results showed that the DNA does not stand alone as a single chain but rather as two chains that spiral into each other, with bases on the chain attached to the base of the chain to another. In other words, DNA is a double helix. The theory of this model confirmed and refined by MAF Wilkins in 1961. Because of these findings the three of them got in 1962 nobel prize in medicine and physiology.

    • Suryo, Human Genetics, (Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 1994).
    • James D. Watson,, Rekombinon DNA (A Short Lesson), trans. Vishnu Gunaryo, (New York: McGraw, 1988)

    Definition of Alternative Education

    Thinking about alternative education stems from criticisms Rowo Mangun the form of education since the enactment of the curriculum in 1974, growing to 1994 curriculum. Alternative education is not meant as a substitute for formal schooling, but look for new materials and methods dedaktik until a new curriculum. According Nunuk Murniati, education should be contextual, must be adapted to the environment. Education for the marginalized too. Where the concept of link and match which was heralded by the New Order government in education only produce capitalist screws made just to suit the needs of workers in the industrial machine.

    Alternative words in Indonesian Dictionary, is an option that is a must. So the alternative education can be said of business or process of changing attitudes and code of conduct that makes mandatory for a person or group in human mature through teaching or training. Thus the term alternative education is a generic term that covers a large number of programs or how to empower the students are done differently in the traditional way. In general, various forms of alternative education that have three in common, namely a more individual approach, giving greater attention to students, parents / families, and educators, as well as developed based on interests and experience.

    In the process of education, the education situation is a course of events, ie, when the symptoms of the educational process as educators are transferring the values ​​of responsibility to prepare students for life in the community. This requires a conducive and sustainable situation. According to H. Oong Komar, contrary to the situation of the functions of education, there are two runways that a standard human nature that is the basis and foundation of the inner spirit.

    • Soegarda Purbakawatja and HAH Harahap, Encyclopedia of Education, (Jakarta: Gunung Agung, 1982)
    • M. Athiyah Al-Abrasyi, Ruh Al-Tarbiyah wa al-Ta'lim, (Egypt: Al-Isa Al-Halal wa Ababil Syirkah, 1950)
    • Y. Dedi Pradipto, Authentic Learning Vs National Curriculum, the contestation of power in Elementary Education, (Yogyakarta: Canisius, 2007)
    • W.J.S. Poerwadarminta, Dictionary Indonesian General, (Balai Pustaka, 2001). Muzayyin Arifin, Philosophy of Islamic Education, (London: Earth Literacy, 2003)

    Peace Education

    Definition of Peace Education

    In peace education, encouraged mutual understanding, tolerance and friendship regardless of race and religion. This is termed the peace education. The word peace or peace generally applicable and is the opposite of violence or abuse. Violence can occur in all aspects of life. In the fields of politics, economics, law and culture. In the field of education, other forms of punishment or sanction his extreme, abuse of authority, coercion and pressure or violate the code of ethics and compliance norms, also referred to as a form of violence in education.

    Education based on the fundamentals of education are compulsory for both parents to take care of, starting with love and friendship, candor, understanding the state of their children and their problems as well as their particular conditions, that described wisely, and provide relevant clues and the road right for him. To achieve peace education (peace education), can be done by understanding the causes of violence in society, which is more familiar in the social conditions that can lead to violent behavior and violent atmosphere that is able to assess the cause of violent behavior.

    Peace education (peace education) is an educational process that empowers people to be able to solve the conflict in a creative way and not in a violent manner. In this context, peace education to be strongly associated with the level of public satisfaction. The difficulty is when a creative way to make the public road is not satisfied in the resolution of conflict.

    To achieve that result, the students, especially adolescents, need to get a peace education socialization, so they are accustomed to dealing with conflict by choosing a creative solution, which is why creative education need to be developed in order to grow a sense of tolerance, mutual respect, a sense of empathy for others and also foster a sense of trust self and patient attitude.

    Description of materials and methods of education in peace (peace education) is as follows. First, load the peace education materials knowledge (knowledge) which includes introspective, recognition of prejudice, conflict and war, peace and non-violence, environment and ecology, nuclear and other weapons, and so forth. Second, the charge materials include peace education skills in communication, active reflective activity, and active listening, cooperation. Third, the charge material values ​​or attitudes (attitude) in peace pendididkan cover, ecological awareness, self respect, tolerance, respect for human dignity and difference with others.

    Bobbi DePorter suggest the fulfillment of six atmosphere in order to generate interest, motivation and joy children to follow the teaching and learning process, among others: Growing interest in learning, establish a sense of sympathy and understanding, creating a jovial atmosphere, take risks, create a sense of belonging, show a good example .

    • Abdur Rahman Assegaf, Nonviolence Education, (Yogyakarta: Tiara Discourse, 2004)
    • Muhammad Zuhaili, The Importance of Early Islamic Education, (London: A. H Ba'adillah Press, 2002)
    • Abla Basat Gomma, Educating Children Mentality, trans. Moh. Zaki Abdillah, (Solo: Oceans, 2006)

    Living Values ​​Educational Program

    Living Values ​​Educational Program (LVEP)

    Living Values ​​Educational Program was originally developed by educators for media consultation with the Education Cluster of UNICEF, New York, and the Brahma Kumaris. Twenty teachers from 5 continents met at UNICEF Headquarters in New York in August 1996 to address the needs of children around the world, and with their experience of integrating values ​​expected values ​​to better prepare students for lifelong learning and multi-meaning.

    Of the meeting agreed goals and objectives of the education is based on the value of the whole world - in developed and developing countries. Living history An Educational Program values ​​can not be separated from the impact felt by humans due to behavior that causes anxiety, so the need for the integration of the concept of value in order either in education or practice in life.

    Parents and educators concerned to see children and adolescents are influenced by violence, social problems, lack of respect respect for one another around them, and the lack of social cohesion. Educators, once again asked to address issues that have arisen in their community. UNESCO Commission, saw the need for efforts to achieve the ideals of peace, freedom and justice social justice. More harmony away the formation of human development and thereby reduce poverty, exclusion, ignorance, oppression and war. "Education Program values ​​of life (LVEP) has been produced in response to a call for the integration of the values ​​of life.

    Intellectual Intelligence

    Intellectual intelligence was first introduced by the French psychologist, Alfred Binet. The term was later popularized by psychologists to some countries such as America, France, Britain and Germany. Binet intelligence using the same definition with the definition proposed by Lewis Terman, the ability to think in terms of thinking about things that are abstract. Binet intelligence quotient interpretation suggested by the words of understanding, thought, control and criticize.

    Stern defines intelligence was the "general capacity of an individual who can be seen in kesenggupan mind in dealing with the demands of new requirements, general mental state that can be adapted to problems-problems and new conditions of life" Thorp As explained, the definition where scope is too broad variety of problems including non-academic problems, mechanical, artistic and social behavior.

    Definition that is almost similar to Stern, but given the narrow sense expressed by other psychologists. Such understanding is given by Wechsler, intelligence is the capacity of one's global or summary of skills to be able to act in a focused, thinking well and mix with the environment efficiently. Woodworth also defines intelligence as a general ability to solve intellectual problems on the basis of past achievement and the ability to comprehend and understand the nature of contemporary life. Both of the above opinion emphasized that the intelligence is a general capacity that affects a person's behavior in interaction with others. The majority of the intellectual notion put forward by psychologists to provide different pressures. Thus the above definition has shown that intelligence is actually generally include individual capacity in a complex field.

    In fact, intellectual intelligence invisible from the outside, because it is the only capacity. Intellectual reflection can only be seen from the behavior of individuals, either intelligent or non-intelligent. It is more appropriate to say that someone behaving intelligence or non-intelligence, of the states that a person who has the intellectual acumen with berintelegensi. Freeman argued that a person who behaves intelligence is not only able to gain knowledge and experience of what is learned, but also able to absorb, interpret, organize, maintain the knowledge and experience gained and apply it to new situations.

    Moving on from the above understanding, it can be concluded that the intelligence has a strategic role in determining the future success of the individual. In the context of education, intelligence is perceived as determinants of learning outcomes are the most important. Same with physical capacity, intellectual capacity owned by each individual is also different. Therefore educators need to know and understand the implications for teaching. Intellectual intelligence is the intelligence of thinking that can help people in the face and adjust to the environment, is able to suss perseolan logically by using abstract concepts, thus forming an effective struksur think.

    Perception And Communication

    Perception And Communication
    Two terms of perception and communication is very close and important to know in order to understand the behavioral sciences. Communication happens if someone wants to convey information to others. And communication can run well and proper if the transmitter had been communicating with the appropriate information, and the recipient does not receive information in the form of distortion. If in the process of delivering information and inappropriate distortion, then this communication can not be said that effective communication or a failure. Failure to communicate can occur because of many obstacles. One of the obstacles posed by the human element involved in it is because of different perceptions.

    Perception is essentially cognitive process experienced by every person in understanding information about their environment, through sight, hearing, appreciation, feeling, and smelling. Perception is a complex cognitive process that produces a unique picture of a reality that is perhaps different from the reality. Subprocesses perception may consist of a situation that is present in a person. Here someone is facing an environmental reality that must be seen and interpreted. The next subprocess is registration, interpretation, and feedback. Thus once a person knows the state of the environment, all of the information listed in his thoughts and memories. In turn these people then interpret or to interpret about all the information that is listed on the environment encountered earlier. The last process people will give feedback.

    In perception is very interesting to talk about the selection process of perception, which is the process how someone could be interested in an object that gave rise to a perception of the object. The factors that cause a person interested in how objects can be grouped into two things namely external factors and factors of one's self within oneself. External factors such as intensity, size, contrast, repetition, movement, and the object is new or already known. The factors of the process consists of comprehension or learning, motivation, and personality.

    Perception can be organized in a person based on things such as the similarity and dissimilarity of objects, their proximity in space, and the proximity in time. In addition, if someone does the perception of others, caused because of the relationships and interactions directly, then the person doing social perception. In such a perception characteristics of each related very decisive. In addition some of the things that will determine the perception of social infrastructures, among others, because of the attribution process, stereotypes, and the halo effect.

    Another term that is most linked to perception is communication. Many expressed understanding of the communication, but there are three important aspects that are discussed in this continuum. Three aspects are information, communication processes within an organization, and communication between people. No information about the three important things that put forward in this chapter so as to provide an understanding of the nature of the essence. Three things that among other advantages, understanding, and feedback. Thus if an excess of information communicated it will cause some reaction, eg people fail to communicate properly take into account the information received, many make mistakes, piling work, information filtering, only sketchily understood, throw the task to someone else, and deliberately avoid information coming. As for the other properties is the notion of information and feedback. Acceptance and understanding of the information the receiver will affect this sense, as well as feedback from the information.

    The organizational communication is a communication that occurs within a particular organization. Communication characteristics of this organization is structured or hierarchical. This communication has vertical and horizontal structures, and as a result can also be structured out of the organization. This latter structure if the organization interact with the environment. If the organization recognized the existence of formal and informal structures in communication was the known existence of formal and informal communication. Formal communication follows the path of a formal relationship is reflected in the composition or structure of the organization. The informal communication of information flows in accordance with the interests and will of each individual is in the organization. Informal communication processes do not follow structural lines, so that could have been someone who has been under the formal structure, communicating with someone who is in the leadership level.

    Communication would also put forward as a very important element of kontimum third is interpersonal communication. The effectiveness of interpersonal communication, can be seen from the following five things: the openness, empathy, support, positivity, and similarity. The similarity factor intimately with the concept of homophily and heterophily. Homophily refers to a degree of similarity between the two parties were tied in communication, which conveys private personal information and receiving information. While his opponent is heterophily that shows inequality.