Wednesday, February 27, 2013

Social Groups According to the Experts

Social Groups According to the Experts
Kinds of kinds of social groups according to the experts

1. Regular social groups

1. In-group and out-group
In-group: social groups where individuals identify themselves within the group
Out-group: The group outside the group itself

2. Groups of primary and secondary

Primary Group: A small group whose members have close relationships, personal and lasting, for example family
Secondary Group: Larger groups, ad hoc, formed for a particular purpose and impersonal relationships among its members so that usually does not last, example of a football club

3. Circle of Friends (Gemeinschaft) and Patembayan (Gesselschaft)

Circle of Friends - life form whose members are bound together by ties of pure mind and is based on natural and eternal love and a sense of inner unity that has been destined example family, kinship, neighborhood, etc.
Patembayan - bonds that are the subject of birth and usually for a relatively short period of time, eg urban, etc. cetting

4. Formal and Informal group group

Formal group: The group has firm rules and deliberately created by its members to regulate the relationship between each other, examples of corporate bureaucracy, government offices, etc. countries.
Informal group: The group that does not have a definite structure, formed by the meeting until that happens meetings of interests and experiences, examples click (Association of the nearest or comradeship)

5. Reference group membership and group

Membership Group: A group where one is physically a member, an example of the villagers / town
Reference Group: Social group is the reference for someone to shape the personality and temperament, especially the example of informal leaders

2. Social groups of irregular

1. Harmony (Crowd): individuals who come together by chance in a place and at the same time an example of a football crowd, herbalist and so on.
2. Pubrik: people who have similar interests gather examples campaigners

Characteristic features of social groups according to the experts
The system of interaction among members.
The existence of customs and norms that regulate interaction system
Continuity
A sense of identity that unites all members
Having a system of organization and leadership
Looks as our unity of individuals who sometimes get together then dispersed

3. Social Organization

a. Understanding social organization is a group of people who have in common and consciousness interact and cooperate to achieve mutually agreed objectives
b. The characteristics of social organization:

Are lasting
  • Having a firm collective identity
  • Having a detailed list of members
  • Has a continuous program of activities aimed at achieving a clear goal
  • It has a procedure for accepting new members and old members issued

Kinds of Social Organization by William Kornblum

Formal organization is an organization that has a set of normal, status, role, and in which there is a clear written rules governing the relations among its members, OSIS example, Scouts, PMR, etc..
Informal organization is a group that has an agreement on the norms and status, but this is usually not a written agreement, an example of a family

Prime Services

Prime Services
1. Definition of Quality Service

In essence, the definition of service excellence is one of the company's efforts to serve the buyers (customers) as well as possible, so as to give satisfaction to customers and meet the needs and desires of customers, both in the form of goods or services. Definition Excellent service is the best service given by the company to meet the expectations and needs of the customer, whether the customer inside the company and outside the company.

Simply put, excellent service (excellent service) can be defined as a service in meeting the expectations and needs of customers. In other words, excellent service is a service that meets the quality standards. Services that meet the quality standards is a service in line with expectations and customer satisfaction / community.

In excellent service there are two interrelated elements, namely the service and quality. Both of these elements is essential to the attention of service personnel (sellers, traders, waiter, or a salesman). The concept of service excellence can be applied to a variety of organizations, institutions, government, or business enterprise.

Keep in mind that the progress made by a country reflected satandar government services provided to citizens. Countries that are poor in general, the quality of services provided under the minimum standards. In developing countries the quality of service has to meet minimum standards. While in developed countries the quality of service to the people above minimum standards.

There are several definitions of quality of services proposed by the experts. And from a number of definitions there are some similarities, namely:
  • quality is an effort to meet customer expectations
  • quality is quality conditions at any time change
  • qualities that include processes, products, goods, services, people and the environment
  • quality is a dynamic state associated with products, services, people, processes, and environments that meet or exceed expectations.

Vincent Gespersz stated that the quality of service includes the following dimensions:
  • Timeliness of services related to waiting time and process.
  • Quality of care relating to the accuracy or kepetatan service.
  • Quality of care associated with politeness and hospitality businesses.
  • Quality of service related responsibilities in handling customer complaints.
  • Quality of care associated with a more or less serving officers and other supporting facilities.
  • Quality of care related to the location, the room service, parking, availability of information, and petunujuk / other guides.
  • Quality of service related to environmental conditions, cleanliness, waiting rooms, music facilities, air conditioning, communication tools, and others.

2. History of Quality Service

According to Garvin in his book, Managing Quality, said that quality as a concept has long been known, but its emergence as a management function occurred recently. According to him, the concept and approach to quality of experience the stages of development, such as the approach of inspection, statistical quality control, quality assurance, and strategic quality management.

Stages of development of these qualities can be explained as follows.

1. Approach to inspection
In this era of inspection or supervision of products made directly and compared with a uniform standard. Since the beginning of the 20th century inspection activities related to quality control. At that time the quality is seen as a separate management function.

2. Statistical approach
Movement quality assessment that uses a scientific approach for the first time took place in 1931, with the publication of the work of WA Shewhart, a researcher with the quality of the Bell Telephone Laboratories. He mentioned that the variability is a reality in the industry and this can be understood using the principles of probability and statistics.

Globalization

Globalization
According to the source he said, the word "globalization" is taken from the word global, whose meaning is universal. Achmad Suparman stated Globalization is a process of making something (object or behavior) as the hallmark of every individual in this world without being limited by the Globalization area yet have an established definition, except the mere definition of work (working definition), so depending on which side one looks at it. Someone sees it as a social process, or the process of history, or the natural process that will bring the entire nation and the nations of the world increasingly bound up with each other, creating a new order of life or unity of co-existence by removing geographic boundaries, economic and cultural society. Meanwhile, "Education" is a conscious and deliberate effort to create an atmosphere of learning and the learning process so that learners are actively developing the potential for him to have the spiritual strength of religious, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, and skills needed him and the community.

So, Globalization Education is conscious and deliberate effort to create an atmosphere of learning and the learning process so that learners are actively developing the potential for him to have the spiritual strength of religious, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, and the necessary skills themselves and society as a universal or comprehensive .

On the other hand, some see globalization as a project promoted by the superpowers, so that people could have a negative or suspicious. From this perspective, globalization is nothing but capitalism in its most recent. Countries rich and powerful will practically control the world economy and the smaller countries increasingly helpless not being able to compete. Therefore, globalization tends to greatly affect the world economy, and even affect other areas such as culture and religion. Theodore Levitte was the one who first used the term globalization in 1985.

Traditional Economy

Traditional Economy
Traditional Economic Activities - Definition of traditional economic system is an economic system run collectively for the common good (democratic), Traditional Economic Activities in accordance with the usual procedure adopted by earlier ancestors.

In the system of Traditional Economic Activities duty of the government is limited to provide protection in the form of defense, and maintaining public order. In other words, economic activity, namely the problem of what and how much, how and to whom the goods produced are all governed by the community.

Traditional economic system present in the lives of simple people who depend on natural resources to meet their needs. In this economic system households act as producers and consumers so that each household is only trying to meet their own needs.

In general, the economic system is applicable to countries that have not developed, and becoming obsolete. For example, Ethiopia. But in general, the economic system is very primitive and almost nothing else in the world.

The characteristics of the traditional economic system is as follows:
  • Nature is the source of life and a source of prosperity.
  • There is no division of labor in society.
  • Only a few uses of capital.
  • Type of production tailored to the needs of each household.
  • Still using the barter system in meeting their needs.
  • The process of production and distribution systems are formed out of habit or tradition prevailing in the society.
  • Maintenance of familial trait in people's lives.
  • Production techniques studied hereditary and simple.
Excess traditional economic system is as follows:
  1. Did not happen competition because of all the activities carried out by customs.
  2. Society feels very safe, as there is no heavy burden to bear.
  3. By nature kekeluargaannya, community life together.
The weakness of the traditional economic system is as follows:
  • The production is limited so people are not trying to make a profit or profit.
  • The mindset of people do not develop because due to the influence of tradition.
  • Not taking into account the efficiency and use of resources.
  • Economic activities carried out to make ends meet, not to increase the prosperity and well-being.
  • The technology used is very simple, so that the low productivity

Secretary In The Future

Secretary In The Future
Secretary In The Future - Responsibility and the Role of the Secretary in the Future to be adjusted over the times have air Evolution needs and challenges of the future, of the former is the work done by the instructions or orders, now grown into a dynamic and self-employment,

Secretary In The Future is now required to be more initiative, proactive, and work independently without constant supervision. What does it mean a secretary without a boss, and what happens if the Boss without a secretary? both need each other. But if one chose sekretris be worse and could backfire. Remember, our success as a leader is also supported by a reliable secretary role.

In The Future Role of the Secretary that the Secretary Being Professional and effective career

Having the ability Human Resouce

Senior secretary can act as a trainer, even a leader and mentor to the entire senior staff is required to administrasi.Para secretary to review or revise kenerja its staff, as well as junior colleagues lainnya.Untuk recruitment process, senior secretary orientation or direction to co-workers baru.ini was also added to the portfolio of secretary reliable.

In many companies today ini.seorang secretary is the most understanding of the style and character of bosnya.Dengan Thus, secretary, too, who should at least understand what the employee is needed more tersebut.Ia boss can search and find a right employee for the right job .

Broader scope of work

Thanks to technological developments, the days when the boss is still mendektekan letter to the secretary has now ended, the manajerpun now be handling a e-mail of his own, They berkorespodensi, calls, make appointments, and even create presentations meetingnya sendiri.Dengan Thus, the role of secretary can be more specific scope of work and take a more senior secretaries luas.Para no longer a handyman type or receiver, because they've got a different mindset about a secretary. They can be a means to extend the network and even the decision-makers when the boss is absent.

Multi-Tasking Capabilities

It is the ability to do several jobs at the same time bersamaan.SKILL is quite important to have a secretary dimanapun.Mungkin not a mandatory, but if a sekretris secretary has this capability, it rarely missed work and everything can be done more quickly, because speed is important.

Primary capital to be able to do multi-tasking job is that he must first get used to Well-Organized.Dia must be used to working in an orderly, neat, and terstruktur.Bila not able to do the job at a time with maximum results, it is impossible to work in a structured before stress levels rise due to multi-tasking job of turmoil later.

Skills are more specific

For most secretaries of their work has grown from just common functions into specialist functions. There is an increasing demand for secretaries who have the expertise or knowledge more, for example in the areas of Legal, Banking, or even Human Resource

As more and more companies are setting up its own legal department in-house, the secretary with the expertise and specialized knowledge in the field relevant to more and more sought after. Not to forget also the growing banking sector salaries and bonuses and attractive offers for the secretaries who are ready and experienced in the field.

Mastering Information Management

The Secretary has turned into a profession that is no longer oriented knowledge.Mereka Just doing administrative work, but may run errands for managing information in perusahaan.Mereka are involved directly in the flow and storage of information in the company.

They also must be able to guarantee any valuable information can be forwarded or shared efficiently to the parties that this membutuhkan.Semua very useful to improve the efficiency of cooperation between departments as a whole team.

Keep in mind here that the information in question is not in the form of gossip and should also ensure that the right information is also falling kepihak the right time.
The Secretary has been viewed as information liaison between departments in many companies, and is also considered as a source of information they can relay, a secretary sometimes better know a lot of what is happening in the company rather than their boss.

Customer Service and Research Capabilities

The quality of the secretary or other advantage is reliable customer service good.They often have to deal with customers or clients, this means they must memilikiknowledge strong and competent in the field of service.

The ability to gather information is also important because many rely on secretaries to locate and gather intelligence, informaasi the client, current industry trends, data base management, and information about competitor.Sekretaris work on the unit, group or groups, a secretary who has the ability to able to collaborate and work together in a team more in need.

Mastering technology

It seems there's nothing to be explained from this point, there is nothing worse than we still have to explain how to open e-mails or using word processing software to reliably menguaqsai sekretaris.Para secretary of technology, especially in communications and all the technology that can facilitate komunikasi.satu again that is not less important is technology to do a presentation, which is supported by the skills and expertise of the secretary presenting itself.

With the increasing mobility of the work will be more demanding when ini.Kita secretary who can work independently and can even count on staying for a long time, initiative, confidence, and wisdom are the qualities needed secretary today to be able to keep the "castle" peruasahaan while their leaders were not in place.

Importance of Motivation in Work

Importance of Motivation in Work
Importance of Motivation in Work - In his career, motivation plays like gasoline that will make us continue walking and menghadpi all difficulties. Importance of Motivation in Work for the absence of a strong motivation to work we will easily deterred and decided to stop.

Understanding motivation is a driving force in the behavior of individuals in both individual behavior akam determine the direction and durability (perintence) any human behavior that it contains well-ungsur ungsur emotionally insane question.

Importance of Motivation in Work

Someone who does not have a high motivation to work, the tasks tend to fall only limited liability, no creativity and passion for what makes a special and achieve maximum results. While someone with a high motivation to work he will be able to pull out ideas and work are not in the lower limit so that his work is impressive and easy to get confidence. Of course, people who have high work motivation is exactly what will always get a chance to work on the higher duty and career will always go up.

Factors that could be motivation for a person is:
The necessities of life which must be satisfied
Love of work
Dream he always wanted to achieve

Everyone has a motivation factor respectively, understand what motivates s work, remember and make it as a handle,, Successful people always have a high motivation to work

Competition is not an easy job. Every year, thousands of workers will appear new ready to replace your position. Yet co-workers, the applicants who come from abroad, even keryawan a competitor could threaten your career if you are not able to maintain good performance. Be the best, keep your motivation to work.

Factors that will affect employee motivation in a company

Factors corporate policy

Melipui salary, benefits, and pensions. The impact on work motivation is usually just to survive. Not such a huge impact in peningkatakn performance. So, the company is not enough to just rely on salary issues, pensions, and benefits to motivate employees to get the best performance. Except, if the company is able to provide salaries, far above the average wage, will probably have an influence.

Factors fee or reward

If managed properly, rewards or reward system for employees who excel will give a great impact to increase motivation.

Factors corporate culture

Although it looks simple, but the problem of corporate culture can have a large impact in improving motivation. Cultures that promote respect, solidarity, honesty, and familiarity will enhance work motivation is significant.

Factors mental state employees themselves

This is the most important. If an employee who has the mental strength, he will still have the motivation to work even though the three factors above are less supportive. They had thought ahead. His views are not only narrow the moment. They have a great spirit to keep contributing as possible. Unfortunately, these factors are often overlooked both by its own employees or by the company.

Understanding and Definition of HTML

Understanding and Definition of HTML
Understanding and Definition of HTML - The so-called Understanding HTML is (HyperText Mark-up Language) is a method to implement the concept of hypertext in a manuscript or document. HTML itself is not considered a programming language because it is just marking (marking up) on a manuscript text and not as a program.



Based on its constituent words can be interpreted HTML deeper into:

hypertext

Hypertext link is a word or phrase that can show the relationship of a text document with other manuscripts. If we click on a word or phrase to follow this link then the web browser will move the display to the other parts of the text or documents that we are headed.

markup

In the sense here markup indicates that the HTML file contains a specific instruction to provide a format in which the document will be displayed on the World Wide Web.

Language

Although HTML itself is not a programming language, HTML is a collection of some of the instructions that can be used to vary the format a manuscript or document

Workers in the future

Workers in the future
Workers in the future - How Workers In The Future. BY (Lampost.co) recent survey involving more than three thousand business owners revealed that future work does not require a place of business or office. More than half or exactly 57 percent of the companies surveyed plan to at least double the budget issued to employees online in 2013. Meanwhile, 82 percent believe in the next 10 years many companies will build a virtual team working online.

"These workers do not want to limit myself in work. And the trend of working from anywhere will be demands, "said co-founder and CEO of international Rat Race Rebellionand Michael Haaren.

Haaren adds that more companies streamline the work that workers do not need to come to the office. Some companies such as American Express, Amazon, United Health and Aetna are now realized by hiring more workers online will give you access to millions of potential prospective business partners. It also saves the cost of business premises and reduce turnover.

The idea of ​​working online it has raised some investors. Through the investment firm Revolution, AOL founder Steve Case supports startup Loosecubes in March according to the virtual worker. Meanwhile, the Jeff Bezos of Amazon and Howard Schultz of Starbucks are two big names that helped the General Assembly is a global network of co-working with an area 20ribu square feet in New York.

So virtual high-salaried workers can do the job of a couch or the local coffee shop for trends 'rolling workstations' an increase in the future. (msnbc.msn / * Future work is precisely not Need Office (MI/L-5)

Various kinds Constitution

Various kinds Constitution
Various kinds of the existing Constitution - Here are some Macam Macam Constitutional laws

1) a written Constitution and the unwritten constitution (written constitution and Unwritten constitution).

A written constitution is called when the form of a text (Doumentary Constitution), while the unwritten constitution is not the form of a text (Non-Doumentary Constitution) and much influenced by the tradition of the convention. Examples of the British constitution is only a collection of documents. Examples of the British constitution is only a collection of documents.

2) The Constitution flexible and rigid constitution (flexible and rigid constitution).

Understanding flexible constitution is amended constitution without any special procedure while a rigid constitution is the constitution that requires a special procedure in the amendment. It said the constitution is flexible if the constitution allows for changes at any time as msyarakat development (eg British constitution and New Zealand).

While the definition of rigid constitution when the constitution was difficult to change until whenever (example: USA, Canada, Indonesia and Japan).

The characteristics of a flexible constitution
Elastic properties, that can be customized easily
Denominated and changes are easy as changing laws

Characteristic features of the Constitution rigid discrete subject, among other things:
Having a degree and a higher degree of law
Can only be amended by special procedures / special

3) of the Constitution and the constitution of a high degree degree degree is not high (Supreme and not supreme constitution).

High degree constitution, the constitution which has the highest posts in the state (level legislation). While the constitution is that the constitution is not a high degree that does not have the constitutional position and the degree of such a high degree.

4) the United State Constitution and the Unitary State (Federal and Joint Stock Constitution).

Will largely determine the shape of the state constitution is concerned. In a federal state there is division of power between the federal government (center) with the states. It's set in the constitution. The division of power as it is not regulated in the state constitution unity, because basically all the power is in the hands of the central government.

5) Government Constitutional Presidential and Parliamentary government (Executive President Executive and Parliamentary Constitution).

Characteristic features of the Constitution presidential system of government (strong) characteristics are as follows:
  • The President has the power as the nominal head of state, but it also has a position as Head of Government
  • The president is elected directly by the people or council voters
  • The President did not include legislative authority and can not be ordered elections
Characteristic features of the Constitution parliamentary system of government has the characteristics (Sri Soemantri):
Cabinet headed by a Prime Minister who formed based power control parliament
Cabinet members partly or entirely of members of parliament
President with the advice or counsel prime minister may dissolve parliament and ordered held elections.

Biography Of Sutardjo Kartohadikusumo

Biography Of Sutardjo Kartohadikusumo
Full Name: Soetardjo Kartohadikusumo
Alias: No Alias
Category: Politicians
Religion: Islam
Place of Birth: Kunduran, Blora, Central Java
Date of Birth: Wednesday, October 22, 1890
Zodiac: Balance
Nationality: Indonesia
Father: Kiai Ngabehi Kartoredjo
Mother: Mas Ajoe Kartoredjo
Wife: Siti Djaetoen Kamarroekmini

Petition Soetardjo is the designation for a petition filed by Soetardjo Kartohadikoesoemo, on July 15, 1936, to Queen Wilhelmina and the States General (parliament) in the Netherlands. The petition was filed by the growing discontent among the people against the government due to the political wisdom of the Governor-General de Jonge run. The petition was signed also by I.J. Kasimo, G.S.S.J. Ratulangi, Datuk Tumenggung, and Ko Kwat

Fill Petition Soetardjo

The contents of the petition is a request that a discussion was held between the representatives of Indonesia and the Netherlands with the same status and rights. The goal is to devise a plan of giving to Indonesia a government that stands alone (autonomous) within the Constitution of the Netherlands. Implementation will be gradually implemented in ten years or in time to be determined by the court deliberations.

Reaction Petition Soetardjo

The proposal is considered to deviate from the ideals of the national movement gets reaction from both Indonesia and the Netherlands.
Dutch press, like Preanger Bode, Bode Java, Bataviaasch Nieuwsblad, the petition alleges the proposal as a "dangerous game", revolutionary, yet time and according to circumstances.

Dutch reactionary classes, such as Indonesia Vaderlandsche Club found immature to stand alone. But there are also people from the Dutch government approved the petition, by sending a letter to Soetardjo. Parties to the Dutch Government has said that the government does have the intention to always increase the role of the people in control of government to the people of Indonesia is able to take care of everything. From the Indonesian side both inside and outside the Volksraad reaction to the proposed petition also vary.

Some members found the proposal petition Volksraad unclear, incomplete and did not have the strength. Indonesian press such as newspapers Landscape, Tjahaja Timoer, Pelita Andalas, Announcers Deli Magazine Soeara Katholiek petition supporting the proposal. Therefore the proposed petition dengari quickly spread among the people and before the trial Volksraad discuss specifically, most of the press Indonesia supporting this proposal.
According to the daily view current proposal is promoted very late, when will the replacement of the Governor-General by the Governor-General de Jonge Tjarda.

Assembly Petition Soetardjo

Then it was decided to discuss the proposed petition in a special session on 17 September 1936.
On the 29 September 1936 after the trial debate, a vote was held in which the petition is approved by the Volksraad with a vote of 26 votes in favor opponents 20 votes against.
And on October 1, 1936 a petition that has been the Volksraad petition was sent to the Queen, Staten-Generaal, and the Minister of Colonies in the Netherlands.

Proposed new

While waiting for a decision accepted the petition or proposal to strengthen and clarify the purpose of the petition, the court in July 1937 Volksraad Soetardjo return Indonesia to propose a plan to the "Indonesia stands alone".

The plan is divided into two phases, each for five years. At the suggestion of the representative of the Dutch Government in the Volksraad court also said that the government is interested in the direction of improvement of the Indonesian government, but because the proposal is so vast that the solution lies with the government in the Netherlands and the Staten General.
This petition raises back many responses from people's movement organizations such as the Association of Indonesia (PI), Roekoen Peladjar Indonesia (Roepi), Movement of the People of Indonesia (Gerindo), Catholic Society in Indonesia (PPKI), United Islamic Party of Indonesia (PSII), PNI, and so on.

Petition denied

At trial Volksraad In July 1938, the Governor-General Tjarda had vaguely imagined that the petition will be rejected. Report of the Governor-General to the minister Empire (based on the other reports from the Raad van Nederland-Indie, Adviseur voor Inlahdse Zaken, Directeur van Onderwijs en Eredienst), has suggested that the contents of the petition was rejected on the grounds is less clear.

Also considering the uncertainty of events in the future, then it can be approved by the desire not to hold a conference to plan for the future. Finally, he suggested that somehow the petition should be denied so that the change in principle for kadudukan Indonesia and held a conference that does not need to be held.

Finally, the decision of the Netherlands No.. 40 dated 14 November 1938, filed a petition on behalf of the Volksraad was rejected by Queen Wilhelmina. The reason for refusal among others are: "That the Indonesian nation immature to take responsibility for self-government".

Understanding Health Anthropology According to the Experts

Understanding Health Anthropology According to the Experts
According to Health Experts Understanding Anthropology - Anthropology Definitions of Health According to Expert

1. Understanding Health Anthropology According to Hasan and Prasad (1959)
Health Anthropology is a branch of science that studies the human aspects of human biology and culture (including history) from the standpoint of view to understand medicine (medical), medical history medico-historical), medical legal (medico-legal), the social aspects of medicine (medico-social) and human health problems.

2. Understanding Health Anthropology According to Weaver, (1968)
Health Anthropology is a branch of applied anthropology that deal with various aspects of health and disease.

3. Understanding Health Anthropology According Hochstrasser and Tapp (1970)
Biobudaya Anthropology is the understanding of human health and his works, which are related to health and medicine.

4. Understanding Health According Fabrga Anthropology (1972)
Health Anthropology is the study of the various factors that explain the mechanisms and processes that play a role in or influence the ways in which individuals and groups affected by or respond to illness and disease, and also studied the problems of illness and disease with emphasis on behavior patterns.

5. Understanding Health According Lieban Anthropology (1977)
Health Anthropology is the study of medical phenomena influenced by social and cultural, and social and cultural phenomena illuminated by the medical aspects.

Social factors and cultural help determine the etiology of the disease and spread through their influence on the relationship between human populations and the natural environment, or through a direct effect on the health of populations. In understanding Lieban, health and disease is a measurement of the effectiveness with which human groups combining cultural and biological resources, adapt to their environment. Lieban mention that there are essentially four main areas, namely health atropologi ecological and epidemic, ethnomedicine, medical aspects of the social system, and the medical and cultural change.

6. Understanding Health Anthropology According to Landy (1977)
Health Anthropology is the study of human confrontation with disease and sickness, and the composition of an adaptive (ie medical system and medicines) made by groups of people to deal with the dangers of the disease in humans today.

Landy also stated that there are three generalizations are generally approved by anthropologists, namely:
  • disease in some form is a universal fact of life of the human family. It happens in the whole time, place and masyarkaat,
  • groups of humans develop methods and roles allocated, together with the resources and structures to replicate with and respond to disease,
  • group of humans develop several sets of trust, understanding and perception that are consistent with their cultural matrix, to determine or realize the disease. According to Landy, different people, different cultures, have different views on health and disease, and also different when treating the patient.
Understanding Health Anthropology According to Foster and Anderson (1978)
Health Anthropology is a discipline that gives attention to those aspects of the biological and socio-budya of human behavior, especially about the ways of interaction between the two throughout the history of human life, affecting human health and disease.

Made in the definition of Foster / Anderson flatly stated that the anthropological study of objects that affect the health of health and disease in humans.

According to Foster / Anderson, medical anthropology examines issues of health and illness are two different poles poles poles biological and socio-cultural.

The principal concern is biological pole Foster / Anderson is

1) Growth and development of man,
2) The role of disease in human evolution, and
3) Paleopatologi (the study of ancient diseases).

While the principal focus on socio-cultural pole covers

1) Traditional Medical Systems (etnomedisin),
2) The issue of health officers and their professional preparation,
3) The behavior of pain,
4) The relationship between physicians and patients, and
5) The dynamics of western efforts to bring health services to indigenous people.

Foster and Anderson (1978), states that contemporary medical anthropology can be found in four different resources, namely Physical Anthropology, Ethnomedicine, Personality and Cultural Studies, and Public Health International.

Foster and Anderson (1987), said that the bio-cultural environment that is best learned from the ecological point of view. Since World War II, many anthropologists who move into a cross-cultural study of medical systems, bioekologi and factors of socio-cultural factors that affect health and disease onset.

Ecological approach is the basis for the study of the problems of epidemiology, where the behavior of individuals and groups to determine health status and the incidence of disease vary in different populations. For example, the people living in the tropics, malaria can develop and attack them while in cold climates not found the disease, or in the area of ​​1700 meters above sea level malaria was not found.

Another example, the more advanced a nation, dideritapun different diseases emerging nation. Infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, tuberculosis, etc.. generally found in developing countries, human groups to adapt to the environment and humans must learn to exploit the resources available to meet their needs. This interaction can be social and cultural psychological often play a role in triggering the disease. The disease is part of the human environment example is Kuru disease (see Foster / Anderson, p 27-29).

Understanding Health Anthropology According to McElroy and Townsend (1985)
Health Anthropology is a study of how social factors affect health and the environment and awareness of alternative ways of understanding and treating disease.

McElroy and Townsend, who took the historical view also emphasizes the importance of adaptation and social change by stating that a large number of medical anthropologists are now dealing with the health and diseases related to the human adaptation along geographical distance and time period widely from prehistoric to the future.
Both experts agree on at least six sub-anthropological disciplines relevant to the Health Anthropology Physical Anthropology, Archaeology Pre-Historical, Cultural Anthropology, Anthropology of ecological, Evolutionary Theory, and Linguistic Anthropology.

Conclusion Understanding Health Anthropology Experts
Anthropology of Health based on the definition of some experts could be concluded that medical anthropology is the study of human health such as prevention, treatment and cure of both the past and the present that relate to cultural and biological and involves a wide range of disciplines (interdisciplinary).

Anthropological study of socio-cultural health of all people associated with diseased and healthy as a center of culture both pain associated with trust (misfortunes), supernatural / witch, healing diseases.

The main task of medical anthropologists is how individuals in society perceive and react to ill health and how the type will be selected, to learn about the cultural and social circumstances in the community of residence. In the Anthropology of Health covers a wide range of interrelated disciplines and linkages.

Understanding Countries by the Experts

Understanding Countries by the Experts
Understanding the state according to the experts and the definition of the state according to the experts

John Locke and Rousseau

The state is an entity or organization the result of the agreement

Understanding Countries by MAX WEBER

The state is a society that has a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force within a region

Understanding Countries by ROGER F. Soltau

The state is a tool (agency) or authority (autghority) that regulate or control issues with the name of society

Understanding Countries by MAC Iver

State must meet three basic elements, namely the government, the community or the people, and certain areas

Understanding Countries by GEORGE Jellinek

The state is an organization that is equipped with a genuine power derived not from a high-rank power ore.

Understanding Countries by HAROLD J. Laski

The state is a society that is integrated because it has the authority and legitimate coercive greater than individuals or groups who are part of the community

Understanding Countries by MAC Iver

The state is an organized association in a community policing in a region on the basis of the legal system held by the government for this purpose given the power to force.

Understanding Countries by Miriam Budiardjo

The state is a territorial area that people ruled by a number of officials and successfully demanded of its citizens obedience to its laws and regulations through mastery (control) monopolist of legitimate power

Definition of Education According to the Experts

Definition of Education According to the Experts
Definition Definition of Education - Here are some definitions Understanding Education According to the experts' understanding of them is education by MJ Langeveld and Purpose of Education by prof dr Langeveld and Understanding education by Driyarkara

Understanding education by M.J. Langeveld

Education is an attempt to guide adult men who have not grown to maturity. Education is the attempt to help the child to carry tugastugas life, to be independent, legally-baliq, and a moral responsibility. Education is the pursuit of self-determination, and moral responsibility.

Purpose of Education by prof dr Langeveld

Maturation itself, with its characteristics, namely: the maturity of thinking, emotional maturity, self-esteem, attitudes and behavior which could be imitated and self-evaluation skills.
Skill or independent attitude, which can be characterized by at least dependence on others and always trying to find something without seeing another person.

Understanding education by Driyarkara

Education is defined as an attempt to humanize a young man or a young man lifting the human level. (Driyarkara, Driyarkara About Education, Canisius Foundation, Yogyakarta, 1950, hlm.74.)

Understanding education by Stella Van Petten Henderson

Education is kombinasai of human growth and development with social heritage. Kohnstamm and Gunning (1995): Education is the formation of conscience. Education is a process of self-formation and self-Determination ethically satisfying the conscience.

Understanding education by John Dewey (1978)

Aducation is all one with growing; it has no end beyond itself. (Education is everything along with the growth, education itself has no final destination behind him).

Understanding education by H.H Horne

In the broadest sense, education is a device by which a social group continued existence renew yourself, and defend his ideals. Carter V. Good education is the process of the development of one's skills in the form of attitudes and behaviors that prevail in society. Social process in which a person is affected by something that guided environment (especially in schools) so yeah can achieve social skills and develop personality.

Understanding education by Thedore Brameld

The term education contains extensive functions of the breeder and the improvement of the life of a society, especially bringing new citizens recognize the shared responsibility in society. So education is a broader process than the process that goes on in school. Education is a social activity that allows people to stay there and grow. In a complex society, the function of education is undergoing specialized and institutionalized with formal education that always stay in touch with the informal education outside of school).

Understanding Geography According to the Experts

Understanding Geography According to the Experts
Understanding Geography kinds according to the experts - the sense of geography - definition of geography according to the experts

Understanding Geography According Erastothenes: geographica geography comes from the word that means writing or drawing on the earth.

Understanding Geography According to Ellsworth Hunthington: see man as a passive figure that lives are affected by the natural surroundings.

Understanding Geography According to Murphy Rhaod

In his book The Scope of Geography Rhaod Murphy writes about the geographic scope of the study, which consists of three main areas, namely:
1. Distribution and linkage (relations) man on earth as well as spatial aspects and utilization for human life.
2. Reciprocal relationship between humans and the natural physical environment is part of a study of the diversity of the region.
3. Study of the region or regions. Study of the region or the region is the most comprehensive research paper and integrated between the elements of the region. It is therefore an object of formal study of regional geography.

Geography According to Claudius Ptolomaeus sense, geography is a representation through maps from any and all earth's surface.

Understanding Geography According to John Mackinder (1861-1947) a geography expert defines geography as a study of the relationship between humans and the natural surroundings.

Understanding Geography According Ekblaw and Mulkerne argued that geography is a science that studies the earth and kehidupannnya, affecting our way of life, the food we eat, the clothes we use, the houses we live in and a place of recreation that we enjoy.

Understanding Geography According to Preston E. James argued geography related to spatial systems, space that occupies the earth's surface. Geography is always concerned with the interrelationships between humans and their habitats.

Understanding Geography According to Ullman (1954), Geography is the interaction between spaces.

Understanding Geography According to Maurice Le Lannou (1959) suggests that the attractions is the study of human geography and organization on earth.

Understanding Geography According to Paul Claval (1976) found that Geography has always wanted to explain in terms of the symptoms of spatial relations.

Understanding Geography According Daldjoeni:

Geography is the science that teaches men includes 3 main points, namely spatial (space), ecology, and region (region). In terms of spatial, geographical spread of the symptoms studied both natural and human on earth. Then in terms of ecology, geography, studying how humans should be able to adapt to its environment. As in the case of regions, learn geography as human habitation area by unity fisiografisnya.

Understanding Geography According to Prof. Bintarto: Geography learning causal phenomena on the earth and the events that occurred in both the physical earth and its living things concerning the matter, through a spatial approach, ecological and regional levels for the benefit of the program, and the success of the development process.

Understanding Geography According to I Made Sandy:
Geography is the science that seeks to find and understand the similarities and differences that exist within the earth

Understanding Geography According to the seminar and workshop of experts in Semarang geography:
Geography is the knowledge about the similarities and differences in the symptoms and the nature of life on earth (geosphere symptoms) as well as the interaction between humans and their environment in the context of spatial and territorial.

Understanding History According to the Experts

Understanding History According to the Experts
Here is a definition of History According to the historian that contain various meanings

1. Understanding History According to Herodotus
History is a study to tell a person's rise and fall turnover figures, society and civilization.

2. Understanding History According to Aristotle
History is a system to examine an event from the beginning and are arranged in a chronological order. At the same time, according to his history is well past events that have a record, the record-the record or evidence of concrete.

3. Understanding History According to R. G. Collingwood
History is a form of inquiry about the things that have been done by humans in the past.

4. Understanding History According to Patrick Gardiner
history as the study of what has been done by humans.

5. Understanding History According to Drs. Sidi Gazalba
past history as a man and around him are arranged scientifically and completely covers the sequence of past fact with interpretation and explanation that gives understanding and Kefahaman about what happened.

6. Understanding History According E.H. Carr in What is History textbooks
History is a never-ending dialogue between the present and the past, a continuous process of interaction between the historian and the facts he had.

7. Understanding History According to Gustafson, 1955
The history of human knowledge is a mountain peak from which actions we may scan generation and plugged into the proper dimensions.

8. Understanding History According to Shefer
History is the past and the events that have actually berterjadi

9. Understanding History According to M Yamin
History is a general science-related stories penfsiran bertarikh as a result of events in human society at a time in the distant past or other signs.

10.Understanding History According to Robert V. Daniels
History is the memory of the human experience

11. Understanding History According to J. Banks
All the events of the past are history (history as actuality). History can help students to understand human behavior in, the goal of the present and future of the new (to study history).

12. Understanding History According Motahhari - there are three ways to define history and there are three inter-related historical disciplines, namely:
  • Traditional history (chronicle naqli) is knowledge of the events, the events and circumstances of humanity in the past in relation to present circumstances.
  •  scientific history (chronicle ilmy), ie knowledge of the laws that seemed to pull past life gained melaluipendekatan and analysis of past events.
  •  history of philosophy (philosophical chronicle), ie knowledge about the gradual changes that take people from one stage to another, he discusses the laws that controlled these changes. In other words, it is the science to the public, not only about the manifest.

Globalization of Technology

Globalization of Technology
Information technology advances so rapidly makes the world seem smaller ball and space is seeming to be no longer. The perception of the world was already changing. 

Information technology in a change in the way it has been spearheading various other perceived changes humans on this earth. However, what kind of changes are made and the direction in which the change is running? Who benefits and who is harmed?



Globalization: Process Fair?

Globalization is one word that probably the most talked about for the last five years with a diverse understanding of the meaning. However, what is understood by the term globalization ultimately bring awareness to people, that all inhabitants of this planet are interrelated and can not be separated from each other for granted despite the physical distance range stretches. The world is seen as a unity in which all human beings on this earth are connected to each other in a web of vast importance.

Talks about talks on the topic of globalization is vast surrounding the fundamental aspects of human life from the cultural, political, economic and social. Globalization of the economy may now be a frame of reference and at the same time the most current example clearly illustrates how a global policy could have an impact on many people at the local level, while the globalization discourse in other respects, may not be so easily observed clearly.

Examples that could be possible is international trade, international monetary fund policies to permit operation of multi-national companies showing that eye-chain-effect will eventually end up on the local economic actors, both positive and negative. The design of economic globalization itself, for example, was initially assessed the positive faith of raising the financial performance of the countries are considered economically underdeveloped cooperation with trade and industrial policy.

However, the negative impact was not inevitable when global policy adjustments that can not be done at the local level. Win-win situation to be achieved turned into a win-lose situation inevitable for local economic actors. Cases such phenomenal that never ended, sales of oil palm plantations by the government recently, or other cases that barely covered extensively as the loss of millions of plasma nuftah in the woods and West Papua, shows it clearly. Of course there are many others.

So, do not be surprised if later most felt that the issue of globalization blowing towards the negative, namely that globalization benefits only those who had already economically powerful and have the infrastructure to sustain its economic dominance, while backward country just felt the positive effects of globalization are artificial, but fact remains abandoned. Some others remain optimistic with the essential ideals of globalization and believes that good human being equal on this earth will be realized sometime in the future with efforts to build unity as fellow residents-world football.

It seems that, whatever the essence of the debate, which is in plain sight is the passage of the process of globalization in almost every field without stopping.

Information Technology (IT)

Information Technology (IT) is now developing very rapidly, no doubt make a significant contribution to the whole process of globalization. Starting from TI rides the simplest form of the radio and television and the Internet and of mobile phones with wireless application protocol (WAP), information flows very quickly and pushed a lot of people living consciousness.

Change the information is no longer present in the scale of weeks or days or even hours, but already in the scale of minutes and seconds. Changes in stock prices a pharmaceutical company in Jakarta Stock Exchange only takes less than a tenth of a second to be known in Surabaya. Dollar exchange rate index specified in Wall Street, USA, in less than a minute was confirmed by Bank Indonesia in Medan Merdeka. Similarly, a fashion show in Paris, which at almost the same time can be seen from Gorontalo, Sulawesi.

IT has changed the face of conventional economics are slow and rely on the interaction of physical resources locally to the fast-paced digital economy and rely on the interaction of global information resources. The role of the Internet is undeniable in terms of providing global information so that a certain degree, IT generalized to the Internet. Internet itself is phenomenal emergence as one of the marker poles advancement in information technology and communications. Internet eliminates all physical boundaries that separate people and integrate them into the new world, the world of "virtual". Equivalent to the development of computer hardware, especially the micro-processor, and communications infrastructure, IT in developing internet speed is difficult to imagine.

The concept of electronic commerce over the Internet, known as e-commerce is born of marriage of IT to economic globalization not yet reached the age of five known-from the fact that there are already about 20 years ago-when it had to give up her broken on the conception of e -Business is more sophisticated. If the e-Commerce "only" allows a person to transact the sale and purchase via the internet and make payment by credit card on-line, or allowing a housewife-ice program the closet for an order of juice automatically if the stock is stored in the refrigerator was gone and paying household bills through the bank sent instructions by pressing a few buttons on his cell phone, then by e-Business, import export transactions between countries complete with opening of LC and model mortgage payment can also be done with the rides and the media alike.

Therefore, reasonable if the governments of the countries of Asia, countries considered less developed, are now beginning to formally support the development of IT in a long while silent-confused not knowing what to do with the rapid development of this technology. For Asia, which is currently working hard to catch up with developed countries and at the same time the social and political changes, the presence of the internet in particular is a complicated issue. Even worse, the economic crisis experienced by Asia in the late 90s when delaying the development of IT in the U.S. and European countries in the use of emerging technology.

Meeting of the Asian Regional Conference of the Global Information Infrastructure Commission (GIIC) in Manila in July 2000 produced a plan to build a communications network, providing the access of information from the internet to the public, organizing framework of IT use, build online-governmental networks, and develop education for improve the competitiveness of Asia. But there are still obstacles, notably including limited resources, still rigid system of governance, and socio-political differences between the countries must now work together to overcome-that if it fails, will stay put Asia on the losers. One of the actions to be taken by Asian governments agreed at the meeting that GIIC is preparing laws regarding the transaction, internet crime, trademarks, copyright and other issues.

What about Indonesia? According to Tabloid Cash On-line dated October 9, 2000, citing IDC (Information Data Corporation), the funds are spent for the benefit of IT in Indonesia is quite large. In 2000 is estimated at U.S. $ 772.9 million, up from U.S. $ 638.4 million last year. This amount does not include the dotcom investment was passionate torch-blarak in the last two years. From U.S. $ 772.9 million, the majority (57.7%) spent on hardware such as PCs and notebooks. Most of the others (14.4%) spent on software. Supposedly, the rate for this software is much greater than for hardware. This is allegedly due in Indonesia piracy rate is still above 90%. While of the 17 sectors had to spend money on IT, the most much spending money is a communication & media (19.3%), followed by a discreet manufacturing (16.9%), government (12.4%), and banking ( 11.8%).

IT Promote Social Change?

As of June 1999, according to the source of Cash On-line, of the entire population of Indonesia, amounting to 220 million, the number of personal computers in the country is only about 2 million units. That means only 0.95% of the population. This number is still very small if used as the basis of IT utopian conception capable of promoting social change.

However, such a small figures reinforced with IT, especially the use of the Internet, could reasonably pose a dilemma for the government, more specifically the countries that have strict regulations. In the New Order era first, TI addressed with full of confusion, such as in the case of a raid one Internet Service Provider (ISP) in Jakarta as "Kudatuli"-riot twenty-seventh of July's scandalous. This case exposes like IT progress by means of war and power. And as usual, a weapon more powerful than technology.

However, the power of IT is pressed it then appeared "arrogant" in the fall of the New Order episode. That said, it is believed that the student movement and logistical assistance coordinated by leveraging IT sophistication. In fact, military communications were intercepted and decoded by all the military code of activists and shared through pager, mobile phone and email in the field coordinator for the anticipate sweeping military blockade of Jakarta and other cities at that time, 1998 and 1999. IT, directly or indirectly, contribute to the occurrence of a significant social change in Indonesia, namely the fall of militaristic regime in power 32 years.

But, somewhere along the fault, the new government elected democratically relative post New Order regime also responded to the advancement of IT stutter. Presidential Decree 96/2000 which outlines banning entry of foreign investors in the multimedia industry in Indonesia, shows clearly the confusion of government in responding to the development of multimedia business, which of course is in the mainstream of IT. By Presidential Decree, the implied inferiority remarkable about the government. The Government considers that the protection was not possible given the assumption of local players to compete with foreign investors in the IT world.

In fact, just a lot of local players who yell and against this presidential decree. The only local player who looks most diligent support of the issuance of the presidential decree was PT. Telkom. This confusion is also evident in the formulation of the Telecommunications Act and its accompanying Regulation. Government Regulation No. 52/2000, for example, if someone wants to set up internet cafes, to take the cafe construction permit, must request permission signed by a minister (!). Clearly, the current government policies cause more problems that arise in the development of IT.

In political terms, the increasing tribalism today may be considered related to the advancement of IT as clarify a lot of things so that everyone can know what happened anywhere, which in the past was not seen-but instead of none. Democracy swept the world and the world to implement democracy through global telecommunications system. With the increasing amount of information received by the public, the government should begin to turn towards a system where rules and laws are based not on the will of the government, but on the legitimacy of the public.

The concept of the Unitary example, if viewed from the eyes of IT and globalization paradoxically could become extinct due to effective state actually split itself into smaller and more efficient. Kenichi Ohmae in his terkenenal The End of the Nation State, saw clearly that the idea of ​​"government is the most important part of a government" it was time left. World in the eyes of the world of IT today is about private individuals, not the state (state). The world today, according to the originator of the idea of ​​"The Third Way" Anthony Giddens structuration theory modernist, was metamorphosed into self-management of self-government.

IT Utilization Strategy Options

Modern IT enables a remarkable collaboration between the community, the economy and state actors. A paradox: as the global economy continues to expand, the countries taking part will become smaller. Without IT, the information does not exist, and no information then all activity stops.

Globalization, in terms of information and views from the IT glasses, clearly is a necessity. There was no way to back out of it. According to Amartya Sen, Nobel Laureate in Economics in 1998, the technology must be impartial and serve the people. So what should be done in the context of the development of IT and globalization is to rebuild the alignment of IT with the strategy to defend those who have been abandoned and neglected in the globalization process.

How to start? First, from a local, by providing the opportunity for a little. With a population of 2.1 million units of "hardiness"-has been tested in an economic crisis-the small businesses, medium enterprises and cooperatives are the main targets that should be encouraged and empowered to utilize IT for electronic trade because of limited capital, human resources and expertise.

Second, the presence of hardware or software infrastructure. In this case, the government must have a clear vision. Once the concept of Nusantara Indonesia has had 21, which is already opened in late 1996. This concept should be recognized emulate Singapore One concept, and also Malaysia Supercoridor. Implementation was at that time already, with many wasantara.net appearance, the result of collaboration between PT Telkom and PT Pos and the emergence of many ISPs. But the concept of Nusantara 21 stalled and distracted by political and economic crisis. Now, this concept could be continued because the embryo has appeared in public in the form of ISP, internet and others. Maybe this will be easier because the first Nusantara 21 was a project under which the ivory tower is empty. Well, now living his government. Is there a vision to get there?

Understanding Sociology

Understanding Sociology
Here are some of Sociology According Experts Understanding and Definition sosilogi Indonesia according to the experts figure out which contains various meanings

1. Understanding Sociology According Sumardjan Selo and Soelaeman Soemardi: Sociology is a social science that studies the social structure and social processes including social change.

2. Definition According to Emile Durkheim Sociology: Sociology is the science that studies social facts are facts or circumstances that contains how to act, how perpikir and how you feel about something.

3. Definition of Sociology in KBBI (Big Indonesian Dictionary): so · si · o · lo · gi knowledge or knowledge about the nature, behavior, and development of society; study of social structure, social processes and changes.

4. Understanding Sociology According Soejono Soekanto: sociology is a science that focuses on the social aspects of a general nature and trying to get the general patterns of community life.

5. According to Max Weber's definition of Sociology: Sociology is the science that seeks to understand social actions.

6. Understanding Sociology According Roucek and Warren: sociology is the study of the relationship between people in groups.

7. Understanding Sociology According to William F. Ogburn and F. Mayer Nimkopf: sociology is the scientific study of the social interaction and the results, the social organization.

8. Understanding Sociology According to JAA Von Dorn and CJ Lammers: sociology is the science of structures and processes that are stable society.

9. Understanding Sociology Sociology According to Paul B Horton is the science that focuses on the study of the life of the community groups and the products / results of the life of a particular group.

10. According to Auguste Comte Understanding Sociology: Sociology is A positive disciplines that study the trends in society based on rational thinking and scientific.

11. According to William Kornblum Understanding Sociology: sociology is a scientific effort to study society and social behavior and make the community members concerned in the various groups and conditions.

12. According to Allan Johnson, Understanding Sociology: Sociology is the study of life and behavior, particularly in relation to the social system and how the system affects people and how it applies to those who engage in it affects the system.

13. According to Pitirim Sorokin Understanding Sociology: Sociology is the study of relationships and mutual influence between the various kinds of social phenomena (eg economic symptoms, symptoms of family and moral symptoms), sociology is the study of relationships and mutual influence between social phenomena with a non symptoms -social, and the last, sociology is the study of the general features of all kinds of other social phenomena

Understanding Modernization

Understanding Modernization
Modernization comes from the word meaning modern progress, modernity or modernity is defined as the force values ​​in the aspect of space, time and a wider social group or universal. Modernization is defined as the changes are moving from the traditional state or from pre-modern societies toward a modern society. Modernization shows a process of a series of attempts to get or create the values ​​(physical, material and social) that are or qualified universal, rational and functional.

Definition of modernization in the opinion of the experts

Widjojo Nitisastro modernization is a total transformation of life with traditional or pre-modern in terms of technology and social organization, patterns towards economically and politically.
Soerjono Soekanto modernization is a form of directed social change based on a plan which is usually called social planning. (in the book of sociology: an introduction, the individual and society textbook).

Astrid S. Susanto modernization is a process of development that provides opportunity for progress toward change. J.W. Schoorl modernization is the application of scientific knowledge in all activities, areas and aspects of life. Koentjaraningrat modernization is an attempt to live in accordance with the age and the constellation of the world now. Wilbert E. Moore modernization is a total transformation of the common life, from the traditional patterns towards western countries that have stabilized.

On the basis of the above understanding the modern term broadly encompassing definition as follows:
  • Modern means berkemajuan rational in all areas and increasing living standards of society as a whole and evenly.
  • Modern means high values ​​of humanity, and civilization in social life in the community.